Panj-aab: My brethren please listen to us.

Where water (aab) is means name, language, land, arts and culture. There water makes merry go, that land is called Punjab. The land of five sisters
1. Beas (ancient name Vipasha)
2. Chenab(ancient name Askini,)
3. Jhelam (ancient name Vitasta)
4. Ravi (ancient name Irawati,)
5. satluj (ancient name Shatadru)

All these five sisters take birth in high and hygiene Himalayas, and then play in open fields of Punjab, making this land of warriors full of joys. This, these have been doing since theirs births from pre historical ages to today in space age. The Punjab has become food grain basket of nation due to selflessness services of these unspoken sisters of Punjab. This Panj-aab (in Persian Panj means Five and aab means water) has impact on every aspects of lives, in water land of Indian subcontinent (Punjab is a geographical name to that land which is called playground of five sisters cutting across the physical barriers).These daughters of Himalayas has never taken partisan consideration on physical barriers to theirs services. This is an effort of abcnewsnetwork team in this part of world to make Pollution in surface water (Rivers), a public debate in Punjabi’s society, in theirs heritage, these five rivers are the life line of this joyful society. After so many years of services to theirs brethren, now they are praying for survival because of following elimination threats by theirs own.


Water quality of rivers in East Punjab (Indian)
S.No. Parameter 1.Satluj 2.Beas 3.Ravi Ghaggar BIS (ISI)/ USEPA
1 Temperature 0C 16 16 14 16
2 pH 7.7, 7.8, 7.8, 7.6, 6.5-8.5
3 Conductivity (mmho) 378 342 202 424 Max.2250 for only irrigation, Industrial Cooling, Controlled Waste disposal
4 Nitrogen (No2 + No3) 1.0 1.4 .04 2.34 1 mg/L.( drinking water)
(10 mg/L.for other)
5 DO (mg/l) 7.7 7.8 9.0 5.8 4-6
6 BOD (mg/l) 1.8 4.2 0.4 28.0 2-3
7 COD (mg/l) 6.4 14.4 1.6 57.6 6 mg/l.(WHO)
8 Cl- (mg/l) 20 23.0 10 54.0 250 mg/l
9 So4 14 16 8.0 30 250 mg/l
10 Na 4.2 14.6 1.8 21.2 26 for industrial only
11 Fecal Coliform 170 500 0.0 500 drinking water 0col./100 mL
water bathing
<2,000 col./100mL
12 Turbidity (NTU) 22 24 7.0 62 0.5-1.0 NTU
13 Total Coliform 500 5000 7.0 9000 <50(DW)500(OB)-5000 (dwt)
14 TDS 340 302 194 396 500
Source: Punjab Pollution Control Board Report

List of major industries discharging their effluents into Rivers in Punjab
Source: Status of Water Quality of Rivers of Punjab, 1989,
1. Sutlej 2. Beas Ghaggar
• NFL Naya Nangal
• PNFC Naya Nangal
• Punjab Alkalies, Naya Nangal
• Ropar Thermal Plant, Ropar
• M/s. Swaraj Mazda, Asron (Distt. HSR)
• M/s. United Pulp and Paper Mills, Asron (Distt. HSR)
• M/s. Mukerian Paper Mills, Mukerian
• Goindwal Industrial Complex, Goindwal • M/s. ABC Ltd., Rajpura
• M/s. Stepan Chemicals, Rajpura
• Focal Point, Rajpura
• M/s. RMI (P) Ltd., Rajpura
• M/s. Bharat Commerce India Ltd., Rajpura
• M/s. Patiala Distillers (P) Ltd. V.Main, Distt. PTA
• M/s. Escorts (P) Ltd., Bahadurgarh
• M/s. Goetze India Ltd., Bahadurgarh
• M/s. Hindustan Wire Products, Patiala






List of Municipal Corporation/Committees discharging their effluents into rivers (East Punjab)
1.Sutlej 2.Beas 3.Ravi Ghaggar
• Nangal
• Anandpur Sahib
• Ropar
• Phillaur
• Ludhiana
• Jalandhar
• Nawanshahr
• Phagwara
• Hoshiarpur
• Kapurthala
• Sultanpur • Pathankot
• Mukerian • Dinanagar
• Gurdaspur
• Dhariwal
• Dera Baba Nanak
• Fatehgarh Churian
• Ram Das
• Amritsar
• Ajnala
• Majitha • Rajpura
• Mohali
• Patiala
• Zirakhpur
• Samana
• Patran
• Nabha
• Gobindgarh
• Sirhind
• Budhlada
• Bucho Mandi
• Rampura
• Sunam
• Bathinda
• Sangrur
• Khanna
• Mansa
• Barnala
• Kharar
• Dera Bassi
• Banur
• Tappa
• Baretta
• Maur Mandi
• Longowal
• Moonak
• Dhanaula
• Khanausi
• Lehragaga
• Ghanaur
• Amloh
• Bhawanigarh
• Ghagga
• Bassi Pathana

Source: Punjab Water Supply & Sewerage Board

Above statistics are from eastern Punjab (Indian), the situation is also worst in western Punjab (Pakistan).Following are highlights.
1. PAKISTAN: Focus on the slow death of the River Ravi

The wide variety of fish that once swam in the Ravi has vanished as have the tiny minnows and crabs children used to catch in the shallow waters along the banks. Even the reeds that used to line the river have gone. The river is virtually dead even when the normally dry bed carries water, such as after the recent winter rains.

The life that once thrived here has been killed off by the dumping of millions of tons of toxic industrial effluent in the water along with huge amounts of raw sewage. As the river has died, so has a facet of life in the city of Lahore has died too. The hordes of Sunday picnickers, rowing enthusiasts and the amateur fishermen have all gone. So have the boatmen who used to ferry people to the Mughul-age vantage point in the middle of the river known as 'Kamran's Baradari.' The extreme pollution of the River Ravi has destroyed most of the 42 species of fish that once lived in the river, as well as the bird life around it, which has migrated to other areas. The survival of small invertebrates, micro fauna and flora is also threatened Source: of IRIN report
2. In Jhelum River the DO content remains well above 7 mg/l. The BOD downstream of Jhelum is around 2.2 mg/l. River Chenab receives pollution loads from many industries and cities. As a result the DO is totally depleted in various stretches. The BOD downstream of Faisalabad is 4.2 mg/l. The pollution in River Ravi is the highest of all the rivers in Pakistan. Most waste water discharges in the river reach between Lahore and Balloki, a length of 62 km. The river presently receives 47% of the total municipal and industrial pollution load discharged into all rivers of Pakistan. The BOD in the river after receiving Lahore municipal discharges is estimated to be 77 mg/l on the basis of mean annual flow. Between Lahore and Balloki under low flow conditions, the river is completely devoid of DO and simply acts as a sullage drain. Source: www.pcrwr.
3. The BOD in Indus River downstream of Attock is 2.9 mg/l. In Indus River water quality was studied at Dadu Moro Bridge at Kotri Barrage with nitrate levels at 1.1 and 7.5 mg/l, phosphate at 0.02 and 0.3 mg/l, BOD at 2.4 and 4.1 mg/l, faecal coliform at 50 and 400 per ml. Due to industrial waste discharges from Punjab and Sindh, the content of heavy metals such as nickel, lead, zinc and cadmium have also been found in Indus water. Source: www.pcrwr
4. Water quality of rivers in west Punjab (Pakistan)

pH Cl N So4 Coliform
Chenab 28 0.4 0.4 240
U 7.9
C 7.9
D 8.0
Jhelum 23 0.0 0.5 240
U 8.0
C 7.7
D 7.9
Ravi 8.0 7.0 0.1 27.0 00
Source: pcrwr
It is sad that water in these rivers has not remained fit for drinking and even not suitable for open bathing. Which is being common feather of rural Punjabis’ culture, without it one can not taste the original flavor of this rich and joyful society. Once considered God equal status in Punjabi society the poor five sisters of Punjab has become place for every possible pollutants wastes of society ranging from domestic, agriculture’s, chemicals, Industrial wastes etc. Most of the big industrial units are located on the banks of rivers, it is done only to release theirs pollutants wastes into these Rivers because in this society it is common perception that “water wash every body” and Holly Ganga can wash all sins by one dip in it. In Pakistan side of Punjab in Lahore people on the banks of Ravi give meat to birds because the meat given to the birds is regarded as a religious ritual by many, just as feeding sparrows or ants are seen as deeds smiled upon by Allah (God). There is also a superstition that anyone feeding the kites and crows at the Ravi will receive good fortune. Thus this type of public opinion about purity of water benefits to all pollutants producers. So it is the responsibility of leading Punjabis intellectuals across the all physical barriers to draw attention of common Punjabis on these old perceptions about purity of running river water. Otherwise these five sisters of Punjab will die in the hands of theirs rich, joyful, and brave brethrens, who are well famous for theirs openness and helping nature in all around the globe. If there were no Chenab, no Jhelum, no Ravi, no satluj and no Beas; where Punjabis will celebrate baishikhi (take bath in rivers on first harvesting day), Bansant, And Lohri without this Punjabi brethrens can not remain as joyful for which they are famous. The Punjabi culture is live because of its openness and joyfulness. If there will no joys in it then, it will not remain Ideal for other to enjoy the life. Last not least Punjabis has a history to fight against odds in past. Every time they come out with more joy and experiences, so when their own sisters are calling them for survival then this community which has history of many wars and fights fought for other sake will not let down it owns.
Dinesh Singh
Special correspondent
www.abcnewsnetwork.com

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