Bioecological theory of human development

Bioecological theory of human development
Developmental psychology is a sphere of Human psychology environment that was closely studied by many scholars.

Urie Bronfenbrenner, one of the world's leading researchers in developmental psychology, created his bioecological theory of human development covering the period from childhood and finishing at the age of 20-25. Thus, Bronfenbrenner separates four different systems affecting human's environment.

The first one is microsystem — a surrounding where an individual lives. It includes such elements as family, school, neighbourhood and childcare environment. The second system is mesosystem — a correlation between the micro settings mentioned above. Mesosystem also includes elements familiar to those listed in the first system, but having certain differences. So such elements could be child's home (relation between family and childcare environment), school or church (relates to family experience) etc.

Thirdly, it is exosystem that could be defined as external environmental surroundings indirectly affecting human development. One of the elements mentioned in the frames of exosystem can be parents' workplace or their evening bingo club, for example. Such environmental settings do not have impact on a child straightly, but they have the one on parents'. Through them such elements of setting affect children's development. The last system of Bronfenbrenner's theory is macrosystem, which includes different subcultures, culture of the whole nation, major political and economic events etc. Thus, such system could be defined as large cultural environment.

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