Robots: Machines or Artificially Created Life?

Robots: Machines or Artificially Created Life?
This article is devoted to Putnam claim "Robots: Machines or Artificially Created Life?" She gives us an example of the community of robots "Let these robots know nothing concerning to their own physical make-up or how they came into existence." She gives these robots an ability to speak, reasoning and theory construction, they are capable to distinct visual appearance and physical reality.

She assume that these robots are sophisticated scientifically and there is no reason for them to know too much of their own internal constitution. It seems to me that all these qualities reside in human! Hence, the question arises: Can these robots behave as we do? In other words, can they obey the same psychological laws as humans do?

On the opinion of Putnam, to know psychological laws of any species, is to know how any members of that species (humans) could behave, given all the variation that are capable of variation at all. Thus to say that man and robot have the same psychology is to say that behavior of two species is revealingly analyzed.

Putnam attempts to show how easily psychology of any species can be determined, and hence, presence of psychology does not imply that it is necessary conscious. As an example, she tells about mechanical "mice" constructed by Shannon that have a psychology. As a conclusion she defines the term "psychological isomorphism" — "sameness of functional organization".

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