Labeling and Analyzing Psychopaths

Labeling and Analyzing Psychopaths
The first ideology of psychopathy came into being in the book ?mask of sanity? written by hervery cleckley in 1940. An individual with psycopathic tendencies show quite a few emotional deficeits including shallow affect and lack of empathy. Persons with in this group also display lack of conscience and lead a parsitic lifestyle.Taking adavantage of all those who will give into their superficial charm.Psychopaths can usely blend easily within society, hiding behind a artifical persona . The true self is not presented until they commit a callous act. Psychopaths are present in both the general and criminal populations. They account for approximately 1% of the total popualtion .

Psychopaths cause collateral damage without an after thought as to who becomes effected by there actions, whether it be family members of the victims or the general public.In the past it has proven quite difficult to label these individuals based upon historic methods meant to do so.

The development of the psychopath checklist developed by Dr. Robert Hare is proving to be quite accurate in determining the presence of psychopathy with in both forensic and general populations .This instrument analyzes characteristics of 2 factors, personality aspects and lifestyle of the individual .The factors analyzed for personality tap into aspects of narcissitic and anti social personality disorders .These characteristics include grandiose sense of self ,callousness , shallow affect,pathological lying ,lack of remorse and responsibility for actions and lack of empathy .

The second factor examines the aspects of lifestyle in terms of deviation from established social norms. These include impulsivity,proness to boredom, criminal versatility, parastic lifestyle.A comibine factor score of 30 or higher is required for the individual to be labelled a
psychopath. Even though the PCL-R has a high false negative rate, It is proving to be the best measure to analyze criminal behaviour upon the basis of multidimensional factors .

The identification of psychopaths can be imperative for reasons of risk management and general safety of the public at large .It has been found that those individuals indentifed as psycopathic are 2 times more likely to reoffend when compared to non psychopaths(Grann. ?Psychopathy (PCL-R) predicts violent recidivism among criminal offenders with personality disorders in Sweden.? Law and Human Behavior 23.2 (1999):205-217.).A result found by dr.hare is that psychopaths are more likely to reoffend with in 5 years of release( hare 1999,as cited inLaurell. ?Recidivism is related to psychopathy (PCL-R) in a group of men convicted of homicide.? International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 28.3 (2005):255-268.).

In the evaluation of the PCL-R the correlation of 2 aspects occurs. Specifc types fo reoffence can be gaged upon the separation of the these aspects and evaluation . In terms of factor one which analyzes personality constucts ,it was found that this aspect contributed to violent recidivism. Where as Factor 2 concerned with interpersonal ,anti social behaviour has been attributed with predicting general recidivism.(Serin. ?Violent recidivism in criminal psychopaths.? Law and Human Behavior 20.2 (1996):207-217.)

Factor 2 is more positively correlated with behavioural aspects of anti-social personality disorder.Where as aspect of factor 1 has combinatonation of factors with more postive correlation with narcissim .(Serin. ?Violent recidivism in criminal psychopaths.? Law and Human Behavior 20.2 (1996):207-217.).When these 2 dimension of psychopathy are subject to multi level analysis to determine significance of each factor in predicting reoffence.Factor 2 ,associated with lifestyle , F=9.23 , and p value of 0.003 .Validating that factor 2 is positivley correlated to
general recidivism.Factor 1 ,personality constructs, have a p value of 0.02,F=5.67.Justifying that factor one is positively associated with violent recidivism.(Serin. ?Violent recidivism in criminal psychopaths.? Law and Human Behavior 20.2 (1996):207-217.).The complex interplay of these dimensions gives reason why the identified psychopath will reoffend. The personality variables of callousness, lack of remorse and conning intermixed with impuslsivity and boredom give a some insight into reasons for reoffence.

Psychopaths tend to find life uneventful and will reoffend out impluse because they find it stimulating.The PCL-R can accurately screen out psychopaths at a rate of 60.5%.(Serin. ?Violent recidivism in criminal psychopaths.? Law and Human Behavior 20.2 (1996):207-217.With these individuals commiting most violent crimes, this measure can provide a good indicator of successful release.

In general those identified as non-psychopathic tend to have success in terms of non-reoffence. average individuals have characteritics that psychopaths are lacking to lead a crime free life.

It is observed that psychopaths are trapped with in a revolving door between 2 worlds .Amongst a sample of 85 inmates which administered the PCL-R,the average general reoffence rate was found to be 57% for the group.The rate of reoffence for those identified as psychopaths was 85% ,Non psychopaths 40% .To be labelled a psychopath the combined scored between factors 1 and 2 had to greater than 29. Non-psychopathic status was defined to be a combined factor score of 16 or less.(Serin. ?Violent recidivism in criminal psychopaths.? Law and Human Behavior 20.2 (1996):207-217.).

The rate of violent relapse for the group was 10%. Violence reoffence for psychopath was found to be 25% as compared to ) of non psychopaths. A definite relationship can be seen between the personality aspects seen in factor 1 and psychopathic behaviuour.Serin. ?Violent recidivism in criminal psychopaths.? Law and Human Behavior 20.2 (1996):207-217.).Violent reoffence seems to be a commonly occuring theme with in the realms of psychopathic criminals. with in another study conducted with 295 inamtes it was found that an individual that acquired a PCL-R of 23 or less there was no violent offence present.(Serin. ?The clinical application of the Psychopathy Checklist?Revised (PCL?R) in a prison population.? Journal of clinical psychology 48.5 (1992):637-642.)

Prisoners that do not have the personality will tend not to reoffend. These prisoners are a very different population and will usually feel remorse for the act they have committed.Where as Psychopathic individuals have a whole different perspective of humanity, only seeing an object that has obstructed there path. The duration of before another reoffence for this popualtion is quite limited. There is a trend that these individuals tend to surivive on the outside world for less time than do nonpsychopaths.It was found that overall non psychopaths survived the greatest amount of time at an average of 45.7 months . When contrasted to the psychopaths at 12.1 months there is quite a vast difference between the groups.(Serin. ?Violent recidivism in criminal psychopaths.? Law and Human Behavior 20.2 (1996):207-217.)

This population is quite volatile when it arrives with in society and can not truly function normally. this measure can acccurately identify psychopathy and ultimately reoffence rate to degree of 60%. With the false positive rate being quite low at 3.7%. Though there is a very high false negative rate of 35 %.In relation to the general reoffence rate even those individuals classifed as nonpsychopathic there is still some failure occuring.(Serin. ?Violent recidivism in criminal psychopaths.? Law and Human Behavior 20.2 (1996):207-217.)

When utilizing the PCl-R it can be validated as being quite accurate at labelling psychopaths and which type of relapse will occur.This can be made on the basis of Comparing factors 1 of personality aspects and factor 2 of lifestyle variables with in the context of the individual.
Both factors have demonstrated a dynamic interplay that occurs between them with in the psychopathic individual.It can be said that the absence of certain personality characteristics of factor 1 can determine the outcome of release. The PCL-r can be a very useful tool
in the determination of who will succeed with in society and who needs to be isolated from it.

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