The Human Resource Recruitment Activity

The Human Resource Recruitment Activity
he Human resource recruitment activity is a buffer activity that creates a pool that the organization can draw from in the event of a labour shortage that is to be filled with new hires. Organizational recruitment programs affect applications through personnel policies that affect the attribute of vacancies themselves. In this assignment, more emphasize is kept on the recruitment and selection procedure of Brent Housing Partnership, a Government Subsidiary. The London Borough of Brent was created out of the re-organization of London?s Government in 1965, yet its component parts, with only a few exceptions like Queensbury, are derived from hamlets, which began as self-supporting communities in forest clearings, some of which date back as far as the Dark Ages. Brent Housing Partnership was created as an Arms length Management Organization from the former Brent Housing Management Services. This took place on 1st October 2002. Whilst Brent Housing Partnership has its own executive board, it maintains very close links with London Borough of Brent and will continue to do so for the immediate future. Brent Housing Partnership controls and manages 10,500 council properties (plus 3,000 Leasehold properties) on behalf of London Borough of Brent and employs approximately 1640 staff. Key Services. Births, Deaths & Marriages, Corporate, Council Tax/Housing Benefit, Customer Services, Education, Arts & Libraries, E-Government, Environmental Services, Forms Directory, Housing, Job Vacancies, Libraries, One Stop Shops, Planning, Social Services
What is Human Resource Management? ========== The policies and practices involved in carrying out the ?people? or human resource aspects of a management position, including recruiting, screening, training, rewarding, and appraising. (Dessler. G, 2003, Pg: 2) What is Strategic Human Resource Management? ============ The linking of hrm with strategic goals and objectives in order to improve business performance and develop organizational cultures that foster innovation and flexibility. In another way, it is "the pattern of planned human resource deployments and activities intended to enable an organization to achieve its goals." Strategic HR means accepting the HR function as a strategic partner in both the formulation of the company?s strategies as well as in the implementation of those strategies through HR activities such as recruiting, selecting, training, and rewarding personnel (Dessler. G, 2000, Pg: 21) What do we mean by the word ?job?? This may seem to be a silly question to ask, but we must remember that ?job? have no physical bounded existence. There is no way of ?seeing? or using any of our senses to comprehend the ?whole? of a job. The idea of ?job? is an analytical one-it enables us to describe a set of actions, which are associated with the execution of range of tasks. ?Tasks? consist of a number of elements, which are actions (i.e. intended behaviors) that are both observable and measurable. (Tyson. S & York. A, 2000, Pg: 186) Job Analysis -????- It has been described as being as scientific study and statement of the facts about jobs. The use of the term ?scientific? is probably misleading. Since job analysis is a simple method of studying job in detail and revealing its constituent tasks and characteristics. (Grant. J & Smith. G, 1984 Pg: 16) Recruitment and Selection -??????????? The process of recruitment and selections are often confused: indeed it is not uncommon for the two words to be used almost interchangeable by some. For the personnel practitioner, however, the two words have very different meanings. As Livy (1988:94) tell us: The purpose of recruitment is to locate appropriate sources of supply of labour; to communicate job opportunities and information through various media: and to generate an interest in vacancies. The recruiter needs to be equipped with two broad sets of information: (1) job specifications as determined by job analysis, and (2) a knowledge of the labour market. Dowling and Schuler (1990) add to this by claiming that recruitment is: Searching for and obtaining potential job candidates in sufficient numbers and quality so that the organization can select the most appropriate people to fill its job needs. (Goss. D, 1994, Pg: 45) It is a process, which aims to attract appropriately qualified candidates for a particular position from which it is possible and practical to select and appoint a competent person or persons. (Bolton. T, 1997, Pg: 32) Selection: It is an emerging science. Torrington et al. (1991:107) tell us that: The search for a perfect method of selection continues [;] in its absence personnel managers continue to use a variety of imperfect methods to aid the task of predicting which applicant will be most successful in meeting the demands of the job. Selection is increasingly important as more attention is paid to the cost of poor selection. (Sisson. K & Storey. J, 2001, Pg: 125) Recruitment and Selection Sub-Systems: - ======== v Attraction: Attracting suitable candidates v Reduction: Eliminating unsuitable candidates. v Selection: Assessing, choosing and appointing a suitable candidate. v Transition: Converting the successful candidate to an effective employee. (Pilbeam. S & Corbridge S, 2002, Pg: 115 ? 118) Sources of Recruitment and Selection -????????????????- Internal Sources ==== Advantages Ø Organization has more knowledge of the candidate?s strength and weaknesses. Ø A candidate already knows the organization. Ø Employee morale and motivation are enhanced. Ø Organization?s return on investment in training and development is increased. Ø Can generate a succession of promotions. Ø An organization needs to hire only entry-level candidates. Disadvantages Ø Employees may be promoted beyond their level of competence. Ø Employee infighting for promotions can affect morale. Ø Inbreeding can stifle creativity and innovation. Ø System can become bureaucratic. Ø Excellent training and development. External Sources ==== Advantages Ø The pool of talent is bigger. Ø New insights, skills and know-how can be introduced into the organization. Ø It is often cheaper and easier to hire employees from outside the organization. Ø Outside employees are not members of existing cliques. Disadvantages Ø Attracting and selecting a new employee is more difficult. Ø New employee adjustment and orientation takes longer. Ø Morale may suffer among existing employees who have been passed over. Ø An employee may be selected whose performance is below the standard required or whose personality does not match with the organization?s culture. Source: Asia Pacific Management co. Ltd, 2001. (Stone. R, 2002, P: 179) Equal Employment Opportunity ======== An equal opportunity employment situation exists when there is no unfair discrimination against either of the sexes or against any ethnic or legally constituted social group in terms of access to jobs, terms and conditions of employment, promotions, training, remuneration, or termination of employment. Today, many organizations have ?equal opportunities policies? in which they formally state their commitment to equal opportunity ideals. ============== Advantages == Ø Top management is seen to endorse equal opportunity measures creating an example to be followed at lower levels. ============== Ø As a part of its policy the firm might critically examine the sex and ethnic composition of all its departments, divisions, occupational categories and levels of workers, exposing any unfair employment practices currently operating. Ø The best candidates for the job will be recruited or promoted regardless of their sex or ethnic origin. Ø Discontent among existing minority group employees may be avoided. Disadvantages Ø Organizations sometimes publish extensive equal opportunity policy documents in order to placate existing minority group workers and external bodies (local authorities, government purchasing agencies, the eoc or cre etc) but in fact have no commitment to equal opportunities whatsoever. They have no procedures for implementing their equal opportunity policy documents. This creates disillusion and cynicism among all concerned. Ø Recruitment costs increase substantially. Job advertisements have to be placed (expensively) in magazines and newspapers read by each of the sexes and by various ethnic minorities. All applications have to be examined carefully from an equal-opportunities view point, interview panels need to be larger, more candidates must be interviewed and more time has to be spent in interviewing. Ø An organization might apply an equal opportunities policy to operatives and low-grade managers, but not to middle managers or senior executives. Hence the representation of minority groups collapses at higher levels, so that corporate strategy cannot influence by individuals from minority groups. (Graham. H & Bennett. R, 1998, Pg: 219-220) Case Study: Griggs Vs The Duke Power Company Case heard by the Supreme Court in which the plaintiff argued that his employer?s requirement that coal handlers be high school graduates was unfairly discriminatory. In finding for the plaintiff, the court ruled that discrimination need not be overt to be illegal, that employment practices must be related to job performance, and that the burden of proof is on the employer to show that hiring standards are job related. (Dessler. G, 2002, Pg: 45) London Borough of Brent -?????????? An Introduction to Recruitment and Selection Ø As an employer of the Council knows that its most valuable asset is its workforce. A skilled, efficient and effective workforce is a key component of the council?s success in the delivery of services. Time and energy spent in recruiting the right person, at the right time and for the right job is money well spent. The cost of recruiting and training a new employee, only to find out after a few weeks or a few months that they are not suited to the job, is an expensive mistake. Ø The council?s aim is therefore to attract, assess, select and appoint the best candidates for jobs, to build a quality workforce that will achieve the objectives of the council and its service units. Ø Equally, the council is committed to ensuring that the workplace is fair and just environment. This means that access to employment within the council and subsequent training and promotion will be available to all applicants on an equal basis. The council will positively strive to eliminate all forms of discrimination and promote equality of opportunity when recruiting to the workforce. A consistent systematic approach giving Equal Opportunities highest priority is likely to lead to equality of access and treatment and the selection of the most suitable candidate for each post. Purpose === Ø To meet statutory obligations and ensure compliance with the Council?s Equal Opportunities Policy. Ø To promote a positive image of the Council as an employer. Ø To ensure that recruitment and selection methods are systematic, thorough, efficient, fair, and appropriate to the circumstances. http://intranet.brent.gov.uk accessed on 24/01/2004 Procedures -???- Identify the Vacancy Ø Consider alternatives to recruitment Ø Confirm authority to recruit Ø Check budget provision Ø Establish appropriate recruitment panel Revise/ Compile Job Description Ø Ensure these are non-discriminatory Ø Confirm job title and organizational location Ø Confirm line management and supervisory arrangements Ø Revise main purpose of job and principal responsibilities Ø Consider relevant competencies Ø Set our essential criteria: education, training and qualifications, knowledge and experience, skills and abilities. (Ensure all are measurable) Ø Indicate any criteria which are weighted and which are to be tested. Determine the method(s) of selection Ø Establish the overall selection process at the outset, i.e. how interview and test results will be integrated to select candidates. Ø Consider whether to include presentations/ work sample tests/ skills tests/ psychometric tests. Ensure the person?s specification is marked where these apply. Ø Consult HR services on the use of any tests or exercise. Ø Ensure tests do not contain unjustifiable bias in content or scoring mechanism and do not place disabled candidates at a disadvantage. Ø Ensure that candidates can be offered feedback and told their results if asked. Ø Where recruitment agencies/ consultants are used, ensure that they follow the same guidelines. Redeployees Ø Check if there are any redeployees Ø Redeployees who meet the person specification criteria must be interviewed before any other candidates. Ø All redeployees with disabilities, who seem to meet the criteria on the person specification, must be automatically shortlisted. Advertise Vacancy ===== Ø Draw up timetable for recruitment including date of advert, closing date, short listing date, dates of tests and interviews. Ø Draw up advertisement including job title, salary and fringe benefits, location & hours, brief summary of job etc. Ø Follow agreed priority order; e.g. ring fenced applicants and employees facing redundancy, then other candidates. Prepare Information Pack ======== Ø This should include: covering letter, time table for assessment, job description, application form, details of the service, information about council and organizational chart, council values & competencies, condition and service. Managing the response ===== Ø Keep a list of all requests for application forms and send recruitment packs. Ø Monitor responses from the media used Ø Treat all information concerning applicants as strictly confidential Shortlist ===== Ø Complete Equal Opportunities Recruitment Monitoring Form Ø Long/ Short-lists as soon as possible after closing date of advert Ø Late application forms should be considered at the panel?s discretion. Ø Decide assessment/ interview arrangements in agreement with consultancy services. Preparation before interviews ========= Ø Ensure reception staff has candidate?s names and details of interview arrangements. Ø Pre-meeting of recruitment panel to: - Formulate questions + model answers - Agree structure to interview - Rules for conducting the interview - Arrange venue, seating, light - Divert telephone calls Conducting the Interview ======== Ø Interview panel, explain format of interview and note-taking arrangements Ø Ask agreed lead questions and follow up with any additional questions on points of clarification. Ø Avoid loaded, confusing or multiple questions Ø Take time after each candidate to record individual assessment of the candidate. Write for References ==== Ø Take up references for internal candidates but contact current employer for external candidates only with prior agreement. Ø Attach job description for the post to the referee Ø Confirm post held/ dates/ salary Ø Confirm satisfactory attendance/ time-keeping/ conduct Ø Request evaluation of candidate?s performance, strengths and weaknesses Appointment Administration Ø Retain all documentation including application forms, recording sheets, interview decision sheet and questions asked at interview with the job file in a secure place for a minimum of 6 months. Ø Write to confirm provisional offer of appointment Ø Process pre-employment medical screening Ø Chase written references if not received Ø Check references/ medical/ qualifications/ criminal records clearance. Ø If confirmed, agree start date. Ø Obtain documentary confirmation of National Insurance number before date of commencement. Ø Initiate induction procedures. (Source: Brent Housing Partnership, Recruitment Pack, 2003, Pg: 4-8) Critical Analysis When one looks at the size of the recruitment industry around the world, it seems that practitioners act as if recruitment and selection is the most important human resource function. The research on the critical role of ability in explaining performance suggests they are not wrong to do so. Failure to recruit workers with appropriate competence will doom the firm to failure or, at the very least, to stunted growth. Firms need to attract and nurture people with the kind of abilities that will make the firm productive in its chosen sector. This is the primary way in which HR strategy needs to be ?fitted? to business strategy. While firms should aim to recruit effectively at all levels of ability, the need to recruit judiciously is particularly important where higher levels of discretion or specialized blends of skills are required in the work. As job complexity increases, so does the range of human performance. Thus, as we move up from low complexity work (such as routine clerical work) to jobs where greater ambiguity is involved in decision-making, differences in skills and judgement become more pronounced. It is quite possible for one professional, such as lawyer or an account, to be several times better than another at the same task. The phenomenon of large performance variation is also commonly recognized in sales work. Some people simply lack blend of cognitive abilities and personality traits needed (such as friendly manner plus the ability to close the sales deal) and should not be recruited at all. Among those who do have the threshold abilities, the performance range will still be enormous. It is important to make distinction between selection practices and recruitment strategies. Selection is about choosing among job candidates. It is about how to make fair and relevant assessments of the strengths and weaknesses of applicants. It is deeply concerned with the value of particular practices. Recruitment strategy is best understood as the way in which a firm tries to source or attract the people among whom it will ultimately make selections. Recruitment strategies include attempts to sell the organization as an attractive place to work and attempts to reach better pools of candidates. Some firms that are having difficulties in the labour market succumb to the temptation to over-sell jobs, with the result that appointees become disillusioned and resign fairly lucky. [image][image] High Status quo Innovative/ autonomous Labour market Flexible Muddling through [image]Power Low Low High Management creativity and proactivity in Recruitment activities (Source: Windolf: 1986:239) Fig 1: A typology of recruitment strategy ?Windolf identifies the task of profiling the ideal kind of candidate and the choice of recruitment channels (among search, advertisements, networking and so on) as key dimensions of recruitment strategy. The above figure shows the typology of recruitment strategies developed by Windolf (1986) a useful framework. Firms vary in their labour market power (vertical axis). They also vary in the recruitment strategies (the horizontal axis). This framework usefully makes the point that some firms (status quo recruiters) have resource advantages but do not use them thoughtfully. Their recruitment practices tend to be conservative, often recruiting from the same social strata and age groups without challenging the way this can discriminate against certain kinds of job-seekers. On the other hand, ?innovative? firms attempt to recruit talented people who can help them develop a stream of new products and processes. Another proactive type, the ?autonomous? firm, plans very carefully for all types of recruitment and aims to ?cream off? the best candidates whatever the condition of the labour market. Most firms classified as ?muddling through? or ?flexible? are small or medium-sized and cannot offer above-average conditions. They gain power in slack labour markets but face serious difficulties when labour markets are tight. The key implication of Windolf?s (1986) framework is that firms have something to gain from more creative use of their resources. This is particularly so for small firms competing against much better resourced rivals. As a general rule, more proactive employers do better in tight labour markets. A lot of companies, including many which are well resourced, still imagine recruitment to be about attracting young workers, fresh from colleges or after only a few years in the labour market". (Boxall. P & Purcell. J, 2003, Pg: 141 -142) Conclusion: Recruitment is the phase that immediately precedes selection. Its purpose is to pave the way for the selection procedures by producing, ideally, the smallest number of candidates who appear to be capable either of performing required tasks of the job from the outset, or of developing the ability to do so within a period of time acceptable to the employing organization. The main point that needs to be made about the recruitment task is that the employing organization should not waste time and money examining the credentials of people whose qualifications do not match the requirements of the job. This is clearly in the interests of both the employing organization and the applicants. The objective of a recruitment procedure is to attract genuinely suitable candidates and carefully examine their credentials in order to produce a short list for further investigation in the selection procedure. As an employer the council knows that its most valuable asset is its workforce. A skilled, efficient and effective workforce is a key component of the brent Council?s success in the delivery of services. Equally, the council is committed to ensuring that the workplace is a fair and just environment. This means that access to employment within the council and subsequent training and promotion will be available to all applicants on an equal basis. The council positively strives to eliminate all forms of discrimination and promote equality of opportunity when recruiting the workforce. A consistent systematic approach giving Equal Opportunities highest priority is likely to lead to equality of access and treatment and the selection of the most suitable candidate for each post.

The Human Resource Recruitment Activity 9.8 of 10 on the basis of 2163 Review.