Chicago format

All academic writing involves some citation format or another. There are different citation formats to choose from and each style has a special use based on the subject of the essay. Whatever referencing is chosen, be sure to use the same format throughout the essay while keeping in mind the different purposes of referencing.
Essentially, a citation format enables readers to easily locate the sources used, identify the ideas and language of others that are a part of the essay, and to show the extent of the research that has gone into writing.
The Chicago citation format may be used in any course of study, however, it is normally used in essays pertaining to the humanities, and social and natural sciences. It is even used as the default style when no specific citation format is required. But, in the case no specific citation format is mentioned, it is always better to refer to your tutor/teaching assistant for guidance. Under the Chicago style an academic paper is normally divided into three parts: the front matter, the body that contains the actual essay, and the back which contains the references.
This style has two documentation systems. There is an old system which is principally used in essays relating to history and humanities. This is known as the “Notes and Bibliography” system. Under this system the bibliography is given in the accompanying notes that may appear in the paper itself or grouped together at the end of the paper. The first line of every note is indented a couple of spaces or a quarter of an inch.
In addition to the notes a bibliography is also given at the end of the essay. This bibliography is a list of all the works that were cited in the essay, as well as the other works that you have referred but not cited in the paper. When you use the notes-bibliography system, the notes will only give brief information about the works cited. Generally, this notes bibliography system is the preferred system because it makes review that much easier. The newer system is generally referred to as “Author-Date” system.
The Author-Date system is generally used in essays relating to hard sciences and social sciences. Generally, this method is simpler than the notes- bibliography format. Under this system in-text citation follows a parenthetical system giving the name of the author and the date of the publication. The bibliography that appears at the end of the essay should give a detailed bibliographic citation. As in the case of the older system, the newer citation format should contain details of all cited works as well as other materials read.
The Chicago citation format requires that the body of the essay is typed with double-spacing. However, quotes from another’s works, bibliography, footnotes, and itemized lists may be single spaced. Referencing in the Author-Date system is a record of references listed alphabetically by author. By this arrangement readers who subsequently review the essay are able to easily link an in-text citation to a reference at the end of the work. This system of referencing may also be followed in the notes–bibliography system.
This article originally appeared on

Chicago format 7.3 of 10 on the basis of 1832 Review.