Harvard format

Academic writing involves the writing of essays that are normally of a scholarly nature. Invariably, the text in all such essays refers to materials and ideas that actually belong to others. This system of referencing third-party materials is called citation. Such a system of citation helps the writer to be consistent and accurate, while making it possible for readers to identify, review and locate the materials cited in the essay. One such style is the Harvard citation format, which is the citation format is used at Bournemouth University in the United Kingdom.
The Harvard citation format provides that all statements, views and inferences taken from the work of another author be cited. This stipulation applies whether the cited material is quoted verbatim, paraphrased or summarized. In- text citation refers to the authors name and the date of publication. In the event the exact date of publication is not known an approximate date preceded by ‘ca’ is provided or if it is not possible to give even an approximate date, then ‘n.d’ should be mentioned to indicate that no date is available. As well, in cases where the statement or idea is an anonymous source the same is indicated in the citation as ‘anon’.
There are nuances to in-text citation depending on the situation. For instance, if citations within the text involve authors with the same last name, then it becomes necessary to use the initials of the authors to distinguish one from the other. Also, when the essay contains text that has been quoted verbatim such text must be contained within quotation marks and the citation must include the page number from which the text has been taken. This makes reference checking easy for anyone who wishes to review the essay.
Other than the in-text citation, the end of the essay contains a complete list of references giving details of all the in-text citations. Referencing serves many purposes. Basically, referencing shows readers who subsequently review the essay that there is no plagiarism and, if need be, enables them to do further research using the materials cited in the essay.
This style furhter requires that the reference list gives complete bibliographic details, as well as the page numbers from which the cited text has been taken. The way in which the referencing is done slightly differs depending on the type of source. In the case of a book, bibliographic detail refers to the author/ editor, the year the book was published, the name of the book, edition, volume number if any, and place and name of publisher. As a rule, this information is normally found in proximity to the title page.
In the case of citations from journals, the reference will include the name of the author, the year the article was published, the title of the article, the name of the journal, its volume and issue numbers and the page numbers from which the material used was taken.
For Harvard citation of electronic sources the referencing is a little different. In these cases the reference will have all the details given in the case of books and journals and, in addition, will also contain the name of the database or the URL (web address), and the date on which the material was accessed.
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Harvard format 9.3 of 10 on the basis of 2534 Review.