Presentation on Bioplastics

Presentation on Bioplastics
Bioplastics, What are they?

Compostable Plastics
or
Any plastics-made from organisms (or Organism by-products).
Currently, there is much confusion over the definition of bioplastics
Mixture of Acids that could be made into bioplastics

Making Bioplastics, Etc.

Goal of Bioplastic Production

To Save Resources by either reducing the production of standard Polypropylene plastics by replacing it with a less resource-intensive plastic.
Or Save the Environment by making plastics biodegradable
Or, both!
Bioplastic degradation speed

What are Scientists Doing Now?

Several Different Exciting Methods are being tried right now!
Using Soy-based bioplastics
Using Bacteria to make bioplastics
Starch-based Bioplastics
Polylactide Bioplastics
Poly-3-Hydroxybutyrate
Current Cost of Bioplastic Comparison

Soy-based Bioplastics

One of the hottest sections in bioplastics research today.

Pure Soy Bioplastic has many undesirable traits.

Mixtures of Soy with other substances are currently being attempted.

The Soy shown

Soy Protein

Bacteria-based Bioplastics

Steven Pratt of New Zealand (Major New Discovery)

Mixture of bacteria can create acids when fermented.

The ratio of different acids is based on pH.

The bacteria are fed glucose solution and fermented.

The acids can be used to make bioplastics

Starch-Based

Make up about 50% of the current bioplastic market
Are used in pills that you take
Can be specificially tailored by adding different amounts of plasticizers
This is called ?thermo-plastical starch?
Polylactide Bioplastics
Lactic acid is turned into Polylactide by adding a catalyst and heat.
Polylactide bioplastics can be made on existing petroleum plastic equipment
Resembles plastic in properties
Poly-3-Hydroxybutyrate

A polyester
Easily biodegradable
Easily processed
Currently very expensive
Current interest is very high
Methylobacterium sp V49 is one bacteria that produces Poly-3-Hydroxybutyrate
Challenges Facing Bioplastics

Economically Unfeasible
Biodegradability is a useful and a not-so-useful property
The energy it takes to manufacture bioplastics still comes from standard petroleum sources, undercutting the goal of bioplastics
Current bioplastics don?t have the properties that make plastic so useful (malleability, pliability, etc.)
Researchable Question

Do Genetically Modified Soy Plants make better Soy Protein bioplastics in mechanical, thermal, and biodegradable terms than normal (non-Genetically modified Soy Plant?s) Soy protein Bioplastics when both are mixed with Polyester Amide?

Polyester Amide??!!

Polyester Amides are
Materials that contain multiple ester groups (C(O)-O) and multiple Amide group (-C(O)NH)
One Example is
Soy proteins??!!

Are storage protein held in protein bodies.
When germination occurs (of the soybean) the amino acids are transported to other places throughout the plant.
Materials for Researchable Question (control)

Soy Protein
Polyester Amide
Hang Rack
Weights
2 clamps
Thermometer
Flower Pots
8. Pipettemen 9. Soil with microbial life 10. Restriction Enzymes 11. pcr machine 12. Primers
General Process For Finding gmo Soy vs. non-gmo Soy

Find numerous soy plants.
Extract dna
Search for regions of common Genetic modification.
Separate plants into gmo and non-gmo regions.
Grow one sample from each region and purify the soy protein
Process for Researchable Question

Mix soy protein and polyester amide and add plasticizers. The soy protein will be the filler and the polyester amide will be the matrix.
Let dry
Cut each piece of plastic into 4 pieces
Hang each fourth piece of plastic on a hang rack.
Add weights to bottom until they break.
Record amount of weight added. (tensile strength test.)
Process cont.

Place two pieces of plastic (Same Size, One control, other gmo product) at the bottom of a flower pot
Fill it up to the brim with soil
Wait 1 day
Dig up the pieces of plastic and record amount of degradation.
Bury the plastic in the soil again
Repeat steps 3-5 7x
Process cont.

Take each piece of plastic that has a differing ratio and push them into a test tube (glass)
Heat the test tubes up to 30? C for 5 minutes.
Increase the temperature by increments of 5 ? C and maintain temperature at 5 minutes.
Record when the plastic begins to twist and amount of twisting. (Temperature Deformation test)
How does this affect the world?

Finding out whether soy proteins from GM Soy plants are better or worse than non-GM Soy plants in mechanical, thermal and biodegradable properties will help farmer which want to grow Soy plants for bioplastic production make better decisions.

In Conclusion,

Bioplastics is an important and exciting new
field in biotechnology which promises to help

save the environment as well as slow the

depletion of non-renewable resources.

However, it is still a technology in its infant
phases and many tests and experiments need to be

done to see if bioplastics are actually feasible as a

replacement for the incredibly versatile

polypropylene.

Presentation on Bioplastics 6.9 of 10 on the basis of 2922 Review.