Environmental Issues in World Political Theories

Environmental Issues in World Political Theories
Environmental Issues in World Political Theories For the first time in history, human beings have realized that the environment can be destroyed by human activity. The massive cutting down of forests, draining and flooding of bogs and lakes, changing the flow of rivers, and building of harmful factories and power plants, all of this contributes to damaging our environment. In the world right now an agreement has not been reached about to what extent are humans responsible for the changes in the environment on Earth. World Political forces according to their interests approach environmental issues in different ways, following the three main World Political Theories.
Realism === Realists look at the world in a ?realistic? way. They don?t think there is a point in trying to make the world a better place, because human nature is fixed and it is selfish, but instead try to adapt the situation in order to get maximum self-interest. The main actors for Realists are sovereign states. Since there is no supreme power that can decide over the states, this raises a struggle between the states, as all of them want to become the greatest power. The most important tool that they use to put into practice states? foreign policies is military force. Realists acknowledge the environmental problems of the world, but think that they should be dealt with on national levels. Thus every state takes care of their own environmental problems. They believe that NGO?s don?t have the same power as states. For example, the realists recognize an event like the Johannesburg Conference but they participate in it for different purposes. Not to reach compromises with the rest of the world but to keep up date and to form political alliances in order to promote national interests. usa is a good example of Realism in practice. usa didn?t sign the Kyoto agreement, which limited the CO2 emissions, since it?s not in their interest to reduce production. Liberalism == Liberals believe in progress. The main idea is that humans are perfectible and democracy is needed to make it happen. Contrary to realists, liberals don?t think that war is the natural condition of world politics. Main actors, in their opinion, are NGO?s, starting from multinational corporations to terrorist groups. They don?t deny that states are important but they believe that the co-operation between different types of actors is essential. They stress the importance of environmental issues. Liberals think that environmental problems can only be solved on a global level, by creating of international norms and laws. Therefore e.g. the Johannesburg Conference is a liberal idea. It is the perfect opportunity to co-operate in solving the environmental problems of the world. World-System Theory ======= World-System Theory states that classes are the main actors in world politics. The driving forces of development are conflicts between classes (proletariats and capitalists). World politics depends only on economics. They think that states and even NGO?s represent the dominant class interest in the world. I think that World-System Theorists probably support those NGO?s that fight against the capitalistic class for redistribution of profit (money) in order to save the environment. They don?t believe that events like the Johannesburg Conference actually have it as a goal to reach solutions. Instead these events are used to divert people?s attention from true problems and to make it seem like things are happening.

Environmental Issues in World Political Theories 7 of 10 on the basis of 1918 Review.