Urban Land Use Models

Urban Land Use Models
Urban Land Use Models Often in geography models are used to try to explain something that we can see in the physical environment. During the 20th century a number of models were developed to try to explain how urban areas grew. Although models show a very general idea of the shape of the city, all of the ones described here have aspects that can be seen in most cities in the developed and developing world. The Burgess Model In 1925, E.W. Burgess presented an urban land use model, which divided cities in a set of concentric circles expanding from the downtown to the suburbs. This representation was built from Burgess?s observations of a number of American cities, notably Chicago. According to this model, a large city is divided in concentric zones with a tendency of each inner zone to expand in the other zone. Urban growth is thus a process of expansion and recon version of land uses. For instance on this figure zone II (Factory zone) is expanding towards zone IV (Working class zone), creating a transition zone with recon version of land use. Although the Burgess model is simple and elegant, it has drawn numerous criticisms:The model is too simple and limited in historical and cultural
applications up to the 1950s. It is a product of its time.
The model was developed when American cities were growing very
fast in demographic terms and when individual transportation was
still uncommon. Expansion thus involved recon version of land
uses. This concept cannot be applied in a contemporary (second
half to the 20th century) context where highways have enabled
urban development to escape the recon version process and settle
in the suburbs.
The model was developed for American cities and has limited
applicability elsewhere. It has been demonstrated that
pre-industrial cities, notably in Europe, did not at all followed
the concentric circle model. For instance, in most pre-industrial
cities, the centre was much more important than the periphery,
notably in terms of social status.
There were a lot of spatial differences in terms of ethnic, social
and occupational status, while there was low occurrence of the
functional differences in land use patterns. The concentric model
assumed a spatial separation of place of work and place of
residence, which was not the generalized until the twentieth
century.
However, the Burgess model remains useful for approximation of concentric urban development and as a way to introduce the complexity of urban land use. The (Homer) Hoyt Model By 1945, it was clear to Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman that many cities did not fit the traditional concentric zone or sector model. Cities of greater size were developing substantial suburban areas and some suburbs, having reached significant size, were functioning like smaller business districts. These smaller business districts acted as satellite nodes, or nuclei, of activity around which land use patterns formed. While Harris and Ullman still saw the cbd as the major centre of commerce, they suggested that specialized cells of activity would develop according to specific requirements of certain activities, different rent-paying abilities, and the tendency for some kinds of economic activity to cluster together. At the centre of their model is the cbd, with light manufacturing and wholesaling located along transport routes? Heavy industry was thought to locate near the outer edge of city, perhaps surrounded by lower-income households, and suburbs of commuters and smaller service centres would occupy the urban periphery. The Multi Nuclei Model Harris and Ullman (1945) argue that land use patterns do not grow from a single central point in a city but from multiple points or nuclei. Some of these points existed before the city began to grow, while others develop as the city grows. Nuclei may include the original retail or market area of the city and important transport links such as railway stations, ports or the airport. The areas of the city that they recognise are similar to the ones noted by Hoyt and Burgess but the location of these areas will be different in different cities. The central business district will often be found near the original retail area of the city. Warehousing and light industrial areas will develop adjacent to the cbd and along transport links such as railways and roads. Heavy industry will locate on the outskirts of towns or where the outskirts were when the development took place, since growth of the urban area may have overrun this area by now. Residential areas will be found in the remaining space, with high-class housing situated in the better areas with good drainage, often on high ground and away from nuisances such as noise and poor air quality. Lower quality housing will be forced to occupy the less attractive areas of the city. [image] [image] How do these models relate to Blackburn? The Burgess Model is quite identical to Blackburn. This is because Blackburn has a cbd (central business district) in the middle. As we progress outwards we can see that there are factories and industry, which is also part of the Burgess model. And again as we progress even more outwards we can see houses that are around for many years. This is because people never had much transport and had to walk to places. As a result of this they use to live near their workplaces so they didn?t have to work much. This model does cover the town of Blackburn because there is a commuter zone. This means that people travel from the outskirts to their workplace as this is shown on the Burgess model. And also it is true that there is high class housing on the outskirts but this is not mentioned on the Burgess model. And again it is not precise because there is a wide range of houses inside the town as well as the ones on the periphery. The Hoyt Model is also quite identical to Blackburn. This is because Blackburn has a cbd (central business district) in the middle. As we progress outwards we can see that there are factories and industry which is also part of the Hoyt model but is also true that there are some factories that progress outwards towards the periphery. And again as we progress even more outwards we can see houses that are around for many years but they gradually become more modern even though they are low quality housing. This model is quite precise because it shows that the commuter zone does go from the cbd to the periphery. It is also true that there is high-class housing on the outskirts. It is also very precise that the kinds of houses differ as they go out towards the periphery but they have the odd spots where there are high class houses inner towards the cbd and old class houses are near the periphery and this is shown on the model. The Multiple Nuclei Model is also very identical to Blackburn. This is because Blackburn has a cbd (central business district) in the middle. As we progress outwards we can see that there are factories and industry which is also part of the Multiple Nuclei model but is also true that there are some factories that progress outwards towards the periphery. And again as we progress even more outwards we can see houses that are around for many years but they gradually become more modern even though they are low quality housing. This model is not very precise because it doesn?t show the commuter zone that goes from the cbd to the periphery whereas in the other two models it is shown. It is also true that there is high-class housing on the outskirts but it doesn?t show that there is high quality near the cbd because in Blackburn there are quite a few. It is very precise that the kinds of houses differ as they go out towards the periphery but they have the odd spots where there are high class houses inner towards the cbd and old class houses are near the periphery but unfortunately it does not show this on this model. Also this model is quite correct in saying that there are new businesses being opened on the periphery, which is quite true when relating it to Blackburn because there is a new business being opened on the periphery. (jjb) In conclusion I think that Homer Hoyt?s model is the best model related to Blackburn. It shows that are some factories that progress outwards towards the periphery. It is also very precise that the kinds of houses differ as they go out towards the periphery but they have the odd spots where there are high class houses inner towards the cbd and old class houses are near the periphery and this is shown on the model.

Urban Land Use Models 8.5 of 10 on the basis of 3469 Review.