Investigating the Nature of Skilled Performance

Investigating the Nature of Skilled Performance
Skill classifications. Skill can be split into many different classifications, in these classifications you have two ends of a scale for which you can place sports in between, these scales are called continuums , the placement of these sports on the scale is determined on how the sporting actions are carried out. Open and Closed skill: An open and closed continuum is based on the predictability of a skill action and can be affected by things such as the weather, surface type and playing against opposition teams where it is difficult to predict the move of that team. A closed skill is one where the environment is stable, and an open skill is one where the environment is unpredictable. An example to show these two skills are; A swimmer swimming in an empty lane pool knows that their environment will never change and they will not have to alter their skill to match the environment needs.
However a american football player recieving a pass will know that the situation they find themselves in will always be different, in terms of where they are on the pitch, where their opponenents are and where their team mates are. This classification outlines a specifically important feature for skills, it defines the performers need to respond to moment to moment variations in the environment. This introduces the process associated with perception, pattern, recognition and decision-making, these processes need to be performed quickly so that the skill action can be adapted for the environment. Open skills: Evirnoment is constantly changing - Skill needs constant modification - Needs pratice in a range conditions - E.g dribbling in basketball, tackling in football, passing in netball. Closed skills: Evironment is stable - Skill is predictable - A movement pattern can be established - E.g qymnastics, routine throwing darts, weightlifting. Discrete, Continuous and Serial skills: The discrete, continuous and serial continuum is a second way to classify a sporting skill action, This classification shows how clearly defined are the start and completion of the movement. A discrete skill has a definate beginging and a end. They are usualy performed in one single exertion and would include such skills as a tennis serve, a shot in netball or a tackle in rugby. Discrete skills are important to sports performances; hitting, kicking, throwing and catching skills make up many of the countries most popular sporting activities. A continuous skill which has no real clear beginning or end and is a constant ongoing action. An example of this is running or swimming. The end of one action is the start of another, Therefore continuous skills tend to be regular and rhythmical in nature. One important continuous skill is tracking, in which the performer?s limb movements control a lever, a wheel, a handle or some other device to the movements of a target or track. In between the two ends of the continuum are serial skills, which are often thought as a group of discrete skills strung together to make up a new, more complicated skilled action.Serial skills differ from discrete skills in that the movement duration are somewhat longer, yet each movement retains a discrete beginning and end. Serial skills would include a gymnastics floor routine, an ice dance display and the triple jump. Motor and cognitive: The motor and cognitive contiuum can be consider a third dimension of skill classification. This is based on the amount of thought that goes into performing a skill action. With motor skill the primary determinant of success is the quality of the movement itself. The skill actions don?t require much thought such as high jumping . The high jumper knows exactly what to do (jump over the bar) , but the problem is that the movement must be made effectivaely in order to achieve maximum height. On the other side of the continuum, with cognitive skills. The nature of the movement is not very important, but the decision about which movement to make are critical. For example chess. In chess it matters little whether the pieces are moved quickly and smoothly. It is important that the player knows which piece to move when and where to. This dimension, like the other is really a continuum because there is no completely cognitive skill completely motor skill. Every skill, no matter how cognitive it seems, requires at least some motor output and every motor skill requires some thought and decision making. Gross and fine skills: This continuum is based on how much movement or body involvement is involved. One end of the continuum we ave fine skills, which involve small movement of specific body parts. For example; rifle shooting. This involves the movement of just the trigger finger. Where as at the other end of the continuum we have gross skill. These skills invole large muscle groups and movements of the whole body. An example of this would be; Long jump.Where you have to run up then jump in the air and land. In between these two extremes are skills that require abit of both fine and gross skills, for example a basketball or netball free shot. The pacing continuum: The pacing continuum is concerned with the extent to which the performer has control over the timing of the action. Actions are said to be ?self ? paced? or ?externally?. According to the extent to which the performer can decide when to start the action. Self paced skills are when the performer has control over the timing of the skill. Examples include; - A badmintin player determines the timming of the action of the serve. - Some floor work move in a dance routine - High jumper has complete control over when they start to perform the skill. Externally paced skills are when the performer is reliant on the actions of other players and situation to time the skill. For example. A tennis player facing the server is dependant upon external factors such as when the other player is going to serve the ball, the speed of the ball and the effect of the serve on the ball. Skill and ability Abilities are the qualities, enduring capacities and characteristics that a person is born with, largely inherited from our parents. Many of the top sports performers are as good as they are because of the natural abilities that they were born with. Through training a sports performer will be taught to use these qualities in the correct way in order to maximise their potential. Abilities are things such as: - Balance - Mental speed - Co ? ordination - Eye sight - Strengh - Stamina - Agility All these abilities help a sports performer reach their goals/targets for mastering skills. Skills are something that you can be taught, and through training they can be successfully achieved, skills have goals/targets for the performer to reach where as abilities come naturally. Skills can be changed or affected by things not with in the control of the performer, skills are actions such as: - A hockey goalkeeper trying to save a shot from a short corner - Taking a penalty in football - Throwing a javelin - Riding a moto GP bike It is thought to be important to learn skills as ability cannot be improved but it can help improve the skills, and also ability alone cannot make a performer top in their choosen sport. Task 1b: Here are the five sports that i have choosen and in which i have done a continuum on each of the above skill classifications: The triple jump: Open Closed Discrete Serial Continuous Motor Cognitive Gross Fine Self Paced Externally Paced Triple jump, in this sport the continuums are some what different to the others because in triple jump you are usually outside so the environment i.e the wind, rain, snow, wet track. etc. These all can affect the speed of the run up which makes it an open skill. Even though there is a start, middle and a end the skill is continuous as there is more than one skill being performed in the overall action. I also think it is a slightly cognitive skill as triple jumping has some thought involved but not as much as some of the other sports i have choosen. A goal shot in netball: Open Closed Discrete Serial Continuous Motor Cognitive Gross Fine Self Paced Externally Paced Taking a netball shot at goal, I have done the continuums based on playing in a indoor court which would make it slightly closed as there is no outside environment affecting the shot although there is a defender trying to block. It is a discrete skill as it has a start, middle and an end, it is also cognitive as the player has to aim and think about what strength to throw the ball at. The skill is a fine skill as when a player has the ball in netball he/she cannot move around, and really only using a small amount of the bodies strength. Finally the skill of shooting at goal in netball is preferabley self paced. A three point shot in basketball: Open Closed Discrete Serial Continuous Motor Cognitive Gross Fine Self Paced Externally Paced Three point shot in basketball, This is a closed skill as the game is played indoors so the environment is stable. It is predictable as you don?t have to worry about future moves from other opponents, this also makes it a closed skill. It is a discrete skill as it has a definate begining, middle and a end. The nature of the movement is very important as if you get that wrong you won?t make the shot. Decision making is not that nessassary as it is more about the quality of the movement itself. Therfore it is a motor skill. It is a gross skill as you are required to use great amounts of your body from bending of the knees and to the ball going off your fingers. Finally the skill of shooting a three point shot in basketball is preferabley self paced. Performing a one rep max bench press: Open Closed Discrete Serial Continuous Motor Cognitive Gross Fine Self Paced Externally Paced Doing a one rep max bench press. This is a closed skill as the environment does not affect the performer?s ability to lift the weight. There is not much overall body movement, therefor it is also a discrete skill. There isn?t much thought involved in bench pressing but it does require a little technique which means a little bit of thought which makes it a slightly motor skill. As bench pressing uses one of the main muscle groups it is a gross skill, you can also go at your own speed so in that case it?s self paced. A long pot in snooker: Open Closed Discrete Serial Continuous Motor Cognitive Gross Fine Self Paced Externally Paced Long pot in snooker, This is a closed skill as it is inside and is away from the weather and less noise so much easier to consentrate. It?s a discrete skill as again like the others it has a start beginning middle and a end. The skill is very much so a cognitive classification as there is a lot of thought and concentration involved. Also there is not much movement involved so there for it is a definate fine classification. As the shot can be taken in time it is a self paced skill aswell. Running (1000m) on track: Open Closed Discrete Serial Continuous Motor Cognitive Gross Fine Self Paced Externally Paced Running (1000m) on track, Is an open skill as the envirnoment can easily affect the activity, but also as running is in a non game situation there is no worry of opponents getting in the way and being unpredictable so it makes it a liltle closed skill aswell. It is also a continuous skill as the skill has to be repeated often to travel 1000m. The skill is more motor than cognitive as it doesn?t require much thought on the technique, it is also more gross than fine skilled as there is lots of movement from the main limbs in the body. If it?s running just fro fun or to keep fit its a self paced skill as you are not competting against any one.

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