Animal behavior

Animal behavior
The study of animal behavior is Ethology. A large part of the studies have been conducted by Lonrenz and Niko Tinbergen who wanted to find out how animals saw the world.
For example, fishes. The male will protect its territory. They will become aggressive when they see the red belly of another fish. This reaction is innate or instinctive, it is automatic. An experiment was performed by placing a large red sheet of paper in the tank. This made the male fish aggressive. This aggressiveness is what will make the male more ?fit? in order provide more sperm to the females. The red was the releaser/sign stimuli in this case.
If you take a chick for example, its mother will respond to sound instead of sight. When a chick is distressed and is placed in a sound proof container, the mother will not respond. However, when there is a physical barrier but not sound proof, the mother will respond to the chick?s cries. The releaser/sign stimulus is sound in this case. A bee will never see a white flower but instead it will see the ?target?, which is the pollen.
Pheromones are not hormones. They are chemicals that are released outside of the animal, and have a scent that will give an effect. Therefore, pheromones can also be releaser/sign stimuli as well.
When a gull has captured a plentiful supply of fish in its neck, the baby will peck at its mother so the fish will be released for them to feed on. The baby gulls will respond to the back and forth swinging and the red dot on the mother?s beak.
When a releaser leads directly to behavior it is called a fix-action pattern. If an egg rolls out of a nest the mother will immediately try and recollect it. But if the egg is taken away the mother will still do it. This shows that once the switch is turned on it will continue. Fix action patterns can be learned by humans, and will soon become autonomic.
Usually hormones and timing will motivate animals and drive their behavior; timing through biological clocks, the animals circadium rhythms (approx 24hrs). This circadium rhythm may be altered by changing the animal?s environment. If a squirrel is put into the dark and exposed to artificial light, its cycle may shift. Each cell has a biological clock, which means each organ as well as the individual animal has one.
Organisms can be found on the range of solitary to social. However, if the animal is in solitary there will be no sexual communication. An organism must mate with the same specie at the right timing. Each organism has its own courtship behavior, the behavior by which it will meet the opposite sex. There is a routine by which the mating will occur ? such as a pattern of blinking, or a specific mating call.
Prish, in 1915, conducted a honeybee experiment. Honeybees by nature will explore to find a hive and then will interestingly take measurements ? what degree the sun is to the hive and the distance from the hive to the place. The bees will tell the other bees from the hive the direction and degrees with a singing motion.
There are several different types of learning. One is called classical conditioning. This is how an organism changes it behavior by learning. For example if a dog was given food when a bell rang the dog will learn that he will be fed when the bell is rung. So the dog will start drooling just by hearing the bell. Operant conditioning is the next type of learning. It is learning through pain and pleasure, trial and error. The third type of learning is imprinting. It is where an organism will learn during the sensitive phase in its life (usually when they are young). For example during the first hours of a baby?s life it will remember the first person it sees.
Navigation and Migration is a very interesting topic. An organism can find its home from almost anywhere on earth by using sun, magnetic senses, circadum clock, star patterns, geographical methods and timing.

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