Hydrochloric Acid's Effect on The Rate Of Reaction Between Hydrochloric Acid And Magnesium

Hydrochloric Acid's Effect on The Rate Of Reaction Between Hydrochloric Acid And Magnesium
The variables that could be used are: 1. Concentration 2. Particle size/surface area 3. Pressure (for reactions involving gas) 4. Temperature 5. Light 6. Presence of a catalyst. I decided to use the concentration of acid as my variable. I used 5 different strengths of hydrochloric acid. These strengths would determine the rates of reactions. I decided to measure the acid in millilitres. When the magnesium ribbon reacts with the hydrochloric acid, magnesium chloride is formed. I wrote down the equation to show this: Magnesium + Hydrochloric acid = Magnesium Chloride + Hydrogen Mg + 2HCl = MgCl + H I think that the higher the concentration of the acid, the faster the reaction between magnesium ribbon and the hydrochloric acid. This would be because there were more acid molecules to react with the magnesium ribbon. I decided that I would do 5 experiments and the different concentrations of hydrochloric acids were: 50ml of pure acid 40ml of acid ? 10ml of water 30ml of acid ? 20ml of water 20ml of acid ? 30ml of water 10ml of acid ? 40ml of water To measure the rate of reaction I will see how long it takes for the magnesium and hydrochloric acid to produce one test tube full of hydrogen as shown in the diagram. To make the experiment a fair test I used the same amount of the solution for all experiments, only changing the concentrations.
I used the same size of magnesium ribbon, I also started the stop clock when the magnesium touched the acid and stopped it when the test tube was full of hydrogen for each experiment. I always washed out the test tubes when an experiment had finished so the different concentration wouldn?t get mixed together causing strange results. I decided I would do 5 experiments, three times each. To ensure a safe experiment and working environment I need to wear safety goggles at all times when using acid, use a test tube rack instead of holding the test tubes, secure all equipment and make sure that all the equipment were fully functional and not damaged. The apparatus I will use is: Two test tubes Measuring cylinder Stop watch Strips of magnesium ribbon Bowl of water Diagram [image]First I measured out the amount of hydrochloric acid using the measuring cylinder then the amount of water and poured them both into the same test tube. I then set up the rest of the experiment. I then got a piece of magnesium ribbon about 2 cm long and dropped it into the acid and started timing the moment that the magnesium ribbon touched the acid solution. When the test tube in the bowl of water had emptied and filled up with hydrogen I stopped the clock and recorded the number of seconds taken for the reaction to fill the test tube of hydrogen. I took it out of the water and very quickly placed a bung on top of it so later I could make sure it was hydrogen by putting a lit splint in if it popped then it was definitely hydrogen. Results Concentration of Solution (Hydrochloric Acid / Water) Time taken to fill test tube full of Hydrogen (Seconds) 50ml 20 40ml / 10ml 49 30ml / 20ml 126 20ml / 30ml 143 10ml / 40ml 273 The results above and graph support my original prediction the more concentrated the acid the faster the rate of reaction because it shows the time difference between the different strengths of acids. In a higher concentration there are more acid particles to react with the magnesium ribbon and therefore it is eaten away faster. I conclude that changing one factor does have a significant effect on the rate of reaction as we have seen. Looking at the set of results obtained, you can clearly see that they all follow the expected pattern. This is pattern suggests that the reaction rate increase when the concentration of the acid increases because if you increase the concentration of the acid you are introducing more particles into the reaction which will in turn produce a faster reaction because there will be more collisions between the particles which is what increases the reaction rate. I used the variable of concentration, which seemed to be of a good choice as it would show the results of how more acid molecules reacting with magnesium, would result in a faster reaction. Every time I washed a test tube or a measuring cylinder, I did not dry it before using it. This may have affected the rate of reaction, as water would dilute the acid. To improve my results, I could dry the test tubes and the measuring cylinder after they are washed to prevent diluted acids. The size and weight of the magnesium would have affected the rate of reaction. The experiment could be improved by measuring, adjusting and weighing the magnesium ribbons so they all are the same size and weight. I also found out from background information, that the magnesium ribbon is covered with a whitish deposit. This deposit was magnesium oxide where the magnesium had reacted with the air. I would imagine that some pieces had only a little of this oxide and some had a lot. The pieces of magnesium ribbon that did not have much oxide on them reacted faster than those with a lot. To improve my results, I could clean the magnesium oxide of all the magnesium pieces using some sandpaper, and this would mean that the acid would not have to eat through the magnesium oxide before reacting with the magnesium. In my investigation I used concentration as my variable. To improve my investigation further, I could use other variables such as, surface area, temperature, pressure for gas, and a presence of a catalyst, these variables would hopefully prove that they all help speed up a chemical reaction.

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