Human Resourses

Human Resourses
Selection Devices
? Are the most frequently used selection tool.
? Carry a great deal of weight in the selection process.
? Can be biased toward those who ?interview well.?
? Should be structured to ensure against distortion due to interviewers? biases.
? Are better for assessing applied mental skills, conscientiousness, interpersonal skills, and person-organization fit of the applicant.
Written Tests
? Renewed employer interest in testing applicants for:
Intelligence: trainable to do the job?
Aptitude: could do job?
Ability: can do the job?
Interest (attitude): would/will do the job?
Integrity: trust to do the job?
? Tests must show a valid connection to job-related performance requirements.

Performance-Simulation Tests
? Based on job-related performance requirements
? Yield validities (correlation with job performance) superior to written aptitude and personality tests.

Work Sample Tests
Creating a miniature replica of a job to evaluate the performance abilities of job candidates

Assessment Centers
A set of performance-simulation tests designed to evaluate a candidate?s managerial potential

What about Ethics Training?
Argument against ethics training
? Personal values and value systems are fixed at an early age.

Arguments for ethics training
? Values can be learned and changed after early childhood.
? Training helps employees recognize ethical dilemmas and become aware of ethical issues related to their actions.

Individualizing Formal Training to Fit the Employee?s Learning Style

Career Development Responsibilities
? Clearly communicate organization?s goals and future strategies.
? Create growth opportunities.
? Offer financial assistance.
? Provide time for employees to learn

? Know yourself.
? Manage your reputation.
? Build and maintain network contacts.
? Keep current.
? Balance your generalist and specialist competencies.
? Document your achievement.
? Keep your options open

Performance Evaluation

Purposes of Performance Evaluation
? Making general human resource decisions.
Promotions, transfers, and terminations
? Identifying training and development needs.
Employee skills and competencies
? Validating selection and development programs.
Employee performance compared to selection evaluation and anticipated performance results of participation in training.
? Providing feedback to employees.
The organization?s view of their current performance
? Supplying the basis for rewards allocation decisions.
Merit pay increases and other rewards
Performance Evaluation and Motivation
? If employees are to be motivated to perform, then:
Performance objectives must be clear.
Performance criteria must be related to the job.
Performance must be accurately evaluated.
Performance must be properly rewarded.

Methods of Performance Evaluation

Written Essay
A narrative describing an employee?s strengths, weaknesses, past performances, potential, and suggestions for improvement

Critical Incidents
Evaluating the behaviors that are key in making the difference between executing a job effectively and executing it ineffectively

Graphic Rating Scales
An evaluation method in which the evaluator rates performance factors on an incremental scale.

Keeps up with current policies and regulations

Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (bars)
Scales that combine major elements from the critical incident and graphic rating scale approaches: The appraiser rates the employees based on items along a continuum, but the points are examples of actual behavior on a given job rather than general descriptions or traits.

- Forced Comparisons
Evaluating one individual?s performance relative to the performance of another individual or others

Group Order Ranking
An evaluation method that places employees into a particular classification, such as quartiles

Individual Ranking
An evaluation method that rank-orders employees from best to worse

Paired Comparison
An evaluation method that compares each employee with every other employee and assigns a summary ranking based on the number of superior scores that the employee achieves.

Providing Performance Feedback
Why Managers Are Reluctance to Give Feedback
? Uncomfortable discussing performance weaknesses directly with employees.
? Employees tend to become defensive when their weaknesses are discussed.
? Employees tend to have an inflated assessment of their own performance.
Solutions to Improving Feedback
? Train managers in giving effective feedback.
? Use performance review as counseling activity than as a judgment process.
Why Feedback Is Important?
? Provides employees with information about their current performance
? Affects employee motivation to continue performing.
What about Team Performance Evaluations?
? Tie the team?s results to the organization?s goals.
? Begin with the team?s customers and the work process the team follows to satisfy customer needs.
? Measure both team and individual performance.
? Train the team to create its own measures

International HR Practices: Selected Issues

? Few common procedures differ by nation.
Performance Evaluation
? Not emphasized or considered appropriate in many cultures due to differences in:
Individualism versus collectivism.
A person?s relationship to the environment.
Time orientation (long- or short-term).
Focus of responsibility

Managing Diversity in Organizations

Work/Life Initiatives

Diversity Training
? Participants learn to value individual differences, increase cross-cultural understanding, and confront stereotypes.
? A typical diversity training program:
Lasts for half a day to three days.
Includes role-playing exercises, lectures, discussions, and sharing experiences.

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