Turkey Earthquake

Turkey Earthquake
Turkey Earthquake Introduction The terrible earthquake that struck western Turkey on August 17, 1999 measured a massive Mw7.4 on the Richter scale (also known as the Kocaeli, Turkey, earthquake) Turkey has had a long history of large earthquakes that often occur in progressive adjacent earthquakes. Starting in 1939, the North Anatolian fault produced a sequence of major earthquakes, of which the 1999 event is the 11th with a magnitude greater than or equal to 6.7. Starting with the 1939 event in western Turkey, the earthquake locations have moved both eastward and westward. The westward migration was particularly active and ruptured 600 km of contiguous fault between 1939 and 1944. This westward propagation of earthquakes then slowed and ruptured an additional adjacent 100 km of fault in events in 1957 and 1967, with separated activity further west during 1963 and 1964. The August 17, 1999 event fills in a 100 to 150 km long gap between the 1967 event and the 1963 and 1964 events
This gap was first noted by Toksoz, Shakal, and Michael in 1979 and it?s hazard was later analyzed by Stein, Barka, and Dieterich in 1997. The latter paper estimated that there was a 12% chance of this earthquake occurring in the 30 years from 1996 to 2026. The Cause [image]The earthquake originated at a shallow depth of about 10.5 miles (17 km) and generated strong ground motion (and moderate to high accelerations) in a zone along the Gulf of Izmit of the Sea of Marmara to east of Adapazari. It occurred along the northernmost strands of the North Anatolian fault system. Turkey lies upon 3 major plates, two of which forms the North Anatolian fault one of the world?s longest and best-studied strike-slip (horizontal motion) faults. The Eurasian and Anatolian/Aegean plates were the cause of the earthquake. They had overlapped along a distance of 68 miles (110 kilometres). This particular earthquake occurred on the east-west trending. This particular quake was due to conservative actions. This is when two plates moving side by sides (in the same or opposite direction) go at different speeds. They are sometimes called passive margins. The two plates meet at a fault and pressure builds from the friction. The friction slowly builds up until the two plates pass each other and causes a massive earthquake and causes the land at the fault to become crumpled and ridged. Impact == Primary Effects: The primary effects caused by the quake were things such as the collapse of several thousand buildings, it was estimated that at least 20,000 buildings collapsed or suffered heavy damage. Most of the buildings are typically multi-story commercial residential structures built of reinforced concrete. The main motorway between Istanbul and Ankara passes through Izmit and Adapazari and is intersected by the fault at several locations took little damage; it was generally confined to isolated bridge collapses at fault crossing locations. In the days following the road was overwhelmed by rescue efforts and other traffic. There was also damage to the port (Naval Base) in Gölcük, with collapsed buildings killing several hundred military personnel, including senior officers. Several buildings were ripped apart by the fault, which bisected the base. The main docks just behind the sea walls were heavily damaged by the fault. There were also toxic leaks at the aksa Chemical Plant, which burned vegetation and killed animals in a small zoo at the premises. At least 50,000 were injured, and thousands were made homeless. Damage was estimated at 3 to 6.5 billion usd. Secondary Effects: The after-effects of the earthquake were the significant fire at the Tüpras Refinery. There were also a number of ignitions and in-building fires in collapsed structures. However, due to the prevailing reinforced concrete and masonry construction typical of the area, these fires did not spread beyond the building of origin. The Izmit Water Project (iwp), which delivers out most of the water supply operated by Thames Water, took minor damage. However, local distribution systems in Gölcük, Izmit and other areas served by iwp were generally not functional due to local pipe failures. Water needs of the population were being served by tanker trucks throughout the area, as well as by purified water supplied by military ships. [image]Long-term Impacts There was little long-term effect from the earthquake. Turkey?s economy was not too serious, Turkey had a 2% fall in gross national product in 1999 as a result of the quake, but made a rapid recovery. There was also very little effect on the environment, there was some airborne contamination from heat combustion which eventually settled into the surrounding soil and fresh water reservoirs for quite some time. Soil pollution lead to contamination of agricultural products (including green vegetables), and thus presented a risk to human health. Lake pollution may cause contamination of drinking water. What was done? The U.N.?s Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs in Geneva said other countries, including Russia, Austria, Switzerland and Sweden, had offered to provide search and rescue teams. Other countries and international agencies quickly pledged support and aid. Israel, Bulgaria, Italy, Iran, Japan, Germany, France, and even long-time rival Greece offered assistance. The Americans pledged to provide ?what ever we could? to Turkey. There was also quite a lot done by the Turkish government including big clean ups of the streets, new housing estates were built to replace the damaged ones and compensation money was paid to people who lost family members through the fires and building collapses.

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