Analysis of the Biological Method

Analysis of the Biological Method
The first one is infection. This explanation says that an infection
can cause mental illness. This can be explained by a study through
which it was proven, that babies who?s mother had the flu when they
were pregnant, had a much greater risk of developing schizophrenia
when they grew up. In other words, contracting illness or disease
could mean that you have a greater chance of developing symptoms of
abnormality. Meaning perhaps that illness or disease could affect the
chemical make up of the brain and therefore could cause abnormality in
some way. There is another example of a study in the nineteenth
century. Syphilis was found to lead to brain deterioration which then
led to psychotic behaviours such as delusions and other things.
Then there is another explanation, involving genetics. It says that people inherit genes through reproduction and that these genes cause abnormality. So for instance, a grandparent could have had schizophrenia and it could have passed through one generation without resurfacing but then could come through and resurfaced in their grandchildren. There have been plenty of studies into identical twins compared with fraternal twins to try and justify this assumption. Most of these studies have shown a distinct positive correlation when each identical twin is studied to see whether they at some point become mentally ill. Most studies show that if one identical twin becomes mentally ill, the other has a very high chance of doing the same. Whereas with fraternal twins this is not so much the case. An Identical twin is around five times more likely to become ill if the other twin does than if they were fraternal twins. Related to this also, is adoption studies. It is another study to try and prove this theory. Adoption studies show that if an adopted child contracts a mental illness then the biological parents are far more likely to have an illness to, rather than the adoptive parents. The next biological model theory is biochemical. The biochemical theory suggests that it is the brains chemical make up that determines whether you become mentally ill. For example, if someone has too much or too little of a certain chemical or neurotransmitter in their brain this could cause a certain abnormality. These studies however do not show whether it is a cause or an effect. Finally, neuroanatomy. This suggests that it is the brains structure that determines whether someone becomes mentally ill. According to recent studies schizophrenics tend to have different shaped brains compared to ?normal? people. Other studies have also shown that other abnormalities can correlate with different shaped brains. Now I will evaluate each theory. First infection, if this assumption was proved one hundred percent correct cures or antidotes would be a simple way of solving mental illness. So if someone was seriously mentally ill then medicine would cure them, Medicine tends to be a quicker cure than psychological healing methods in most cases. People would tend to like this theory also because they could then blame physical illness for their abnormalities, they would not be blaming themselves as much. However there is a down side to it. This theory if true, would man that there is no way you could stop yourself becoming mentally ill unless you immunised yourself against all infections before you got them. Also, if it could be a problem if this theory was presumed true as, doctors may treat the infection to try and fight the abnormality. This could be bad because the practitioner would be treating the symptoms not the cause and therefore would never solve the problem. The genetic theory can be depressing to some people to, as you could not help developing the illness and also genetics may stop you from treating it too. There may be no way to treat your genetical make up. There is very strong evidence to backup this theory, meaning the twins research. That does not have to be looked at negatively though. An advantage is that people would be able to predict who will or could contract an abnormality. This may help to stop it developing or if not that, then it could help treat it to, as you would be prepared. Critics of the twins theory would also argue that the concordance is never one hundred percent; if this theory was true then the concordance would definitely be one hundred percent. Now I?ll discuss the biochemical theory. If this theory were true then yet again we would be able to use hindsight to predict who would become mentally ill. This however is dependant on it being a cause, not an effect. This is a big argument in this theory and the next. Is it a cause or an effect? You have to decide for yourself until the research reveals the truth. Lets treat it as a cause, just so I can discuss it. This theory, unlike the genetical theory would mean that drugs could be taken in order to increase or decrease a certain chemical in the brain. This could be done prior to the illness developing so it never does develop, or it could be done while the illness is in full flow. This is a very good advantage attributed to this theory. This is by far an easier way of dealing with mental illness compared with the psychodynamic ways of overcoming it. It though, like every other has a down side and in this case it is that anyone with the right brain chemicals could become mentally ill and it is not your fault how your brain is made up. I also know that this can be looked at differently. People would not blame themselves as much, but then this is true with the whole biological model. Last is the nicest to spell: neuroanatomy. I personally think that it would be depressing thinking that your brain was out of shape, but some most people would look at it and think ?its not my fault?. This is good as it helps with building self esteem. I know I keep repeating myself but yet again an advantage is that you could predict up and coming mental illnesses in people. Overall the biological model definitely fits best people with low self esteem as you can keep telling them that it is not their fault. Generally mentally ill people blame themselves anyway and it is also half the problem sometimes! So countering that would be half the battle won. Another great thing about this model is that mental illnesses can be cured through medicine, not battling with the mind. There are bad points to all this though. There are some weaknesses that I have not mentioned yet. One is to do with ethics. Some patients may not be in a fit state to decide their treatment, this can be dangerous as some treatment could change things physically and mentally with the patient that the totally oblivious patient would not like or agree with if they had the choice. Then there is reductionist. Some psychologists say that reducing human feelings and emotions to chemicals is very depressing and could cause the illness to get worse if the patient believes this. This is particularly true with the biochemical theory. Also some people like to have control of their own recovery and don?t like the thought of depending on other people to cure things inside their own head. They get depressed and think they are helpless. This is called relinquishing responsibility. Thomas Szasz would also argue that the biological concept was only created for social control, so to keep people from panicking. The last disadvantage is that the biological model ignores cultural influences. The way you grow up and/or the environment you are in is said to have an affect but this model ignores that and says that it does not make a difference. So if you believe one then you can?t believe the other as it would not make sense.

Analysis of the Biological Method 9.1 of 10 on the basis of 2394 Review.