Tropical Rain Forest Desert

Tropical Rain Forest Desert
B ? Biomass P ? Precipitation L ? Litter W ? Weathering S ? Soil Ro ? Run off The rainforest is an energetic ecosystem. This means that the rainforest vegetation grows quickly and when dead, decomposes extremely quickly. This is why the tropical rainforest spider diagram looks the way it does. The amount of nutrients in which the rainforest litter (dead leaves, bark, trees, plants etc) store holds is quite small reason being is that when it falls to the ground because of the energetic ecosystem it decomposes quickly into the soil therefore the litter gives nutrients to the soil and this is why the soil has more nutrients in its structure (this is shown by it having a larger circle). There are not really any seasons in the rainforest; leaves fall all year round and therefore can?t fall in mass. Precipitation occurs frequently in the rainforest and it passes nutrients onto litter. Precipitation is mechanical and therefore the relative time of which nutrients pass onto the store of litter is quite fast
The precipitation (rainfall, snow, sleet etc) has no nutrients being passed on to it by biomass, litter and soil hence no arrow leading to it and no circle. The soil has a large nutrient store because when the litter decomposes it passes a large amount of nutrients onto the soil therefore the soil has a larger circle than the litter and there is a wide arrow pointing from the litter to the soil showing that the litter decomposes and gives nutrients to the soil very quickly because the rainforest is an energetic ecosystem even though the litter has a small circle. The soil takes the quickest time to pass nutrients to the biomass (vegetation etc) because biomass takes its main source of nutrients from the soil (it takes water and decomposed litter nutrients). It takes it from the soil incredibly fast because the rainforest is dense and has a lot of vegetation and therefore needs a lot of nutrients to survive. Biomass has the largest store of nutrients because the rainforest is dense and has lots of vegetation. This gives little nutrients to the litter very slowly because litter comes from the vegetation and therefore when the biomass gets nutrients it takes time to spread the nutrients throughout the biomass. Litter also has nutrients in it until it has fully decomposed into the soil. Overall all these factors contribute to the small size of the litter store in the rainforest. 5b.) ?X? has a wide arrow because the nutrient flow between the soil and biomass is extremely quick. This happens quickly because of the speed of the nutrients coming into the soil from the litter. This in turn happens quickly because the heat and large quantities of rainfall increase the speed of decomposition. Also the size of the biomass is great and the amount some vegetation needs to grow is just as great and this is why this is known as an energetic ecosystem and therefore the rainforest takes in the nutrients very quickly. Therefore the speed of the nutrient flow between the soil and biomass is necessary. 5c.) In the two ecosystems there is a complete contrast of the size of nutrients in each structure and relative speed at which nutrients flow from the source to the destination store. In the rainforest the speed of which litter decomposes in the rainforest is very quick therefore the soil nutrient flow to the biomass is very quick, this is different to the desert ecosystem because the soil flow to biomass is slow. This is because the speed of which litter decomposes in the desert is slow because of texture of soil (sand and clay). Therefore the litter takes time to decompose into the soil even though it is hot and when the soil finally receives these nutrients it takes times for it to pass it on to the biomass and therefore there is a large amount of nutrient store in the soil. This is unlike the rainforest because the nutrients in the soil are passed onto the biomass very quickly and therefore it has a small nutrient store. The biomass? speed of nutrient flow to the litter is quick in the desert because biomass nutrients are passed onto the litter at an extreme speed because it helps the biomass receive nutrients from the soil, water etc. Overall in the rainforest there is much more nutrient store in the biomass than in the soil because the density and amount of vegetation in the rainforest there is competition to get the sufficient amount of nutrients to survive therefore nutrients are taken up quickly and there is a large nutrient store in the biomass and a low nutrient store in the soil. This is different to the rainforest ecosystem because the desert biomass is sparse and therefore there is no need for a lot of competition. Clay and sand minerals reduce the decomposition rate of soil organic matter, thereby increasing soil organic content. Clays alter the physical environment of soils by increasing water-holding capacity and therefore there is more nutrient store in the soil and therefore it takes longer for nutrients to pass through it i.e. to the biomass. So therefore the biomass store is very small hence the small circle. 6i.) Less forest Re-growth and/or poor crops [image]deaths of tribes people [image] [image] Increase of tropical diseases Poor seed [image]Drought Decline of crop quality dispersal by [image][image][image] animals [image] Loss of soil destruction of [image][image][image] Forest Clearance Reduced Rainfall nutrients animal habitats And reduced numbers [image] [image] [image] [image] [image] loss of tree canopy Soil erosion and Removal by rivers [image] Loss of Carbon released into ecotourism atmosphere [image]Siltation on rivers [image][image] Destruction of natives villages [image] Encouraging of the Increased severity Greenhouse effect Of floods Rural ? urban migration Lower hatch rates For fish eggs 6ii.) Reduced Rainfall Forests add to the local humidity through transpiration (the process by which plants release water by their leaves). For example, 50-80% of the moisture within the central and western Amazon remains in the ecosystem water cycle. In the water cycle, moisture is transpired and evaporated into the atmosphere before being precipitated as rain back onto the forest. Therefore, when forest clearance occurs, less moisture is being evapotranspired into the atmosphere which results in leaving the area with fewer rain clouds. Subsequently a decline in rainfall follows, and as a result of this the area will become subject to drought. If rains stop falling, then within just a few years the area can become arid with the strong tropical sun baking down on the scrub-land. For this very reason, today Madagascar is largely a red, treeless desert from generations of severe deforestation. Also because of less rainfall river flows will start to decline which lead to a direct effect upon cities and the agricultural lands through which the river flows. The declining amounts of rainfall in interior West Africahave in part been blamed as the cause of excessive clearing of the coastal rainforests that lie there. Similarly, research in Australiasuggests that if it were not for human influence then the dry outback may be a much wetter place then it currently is today. Furthermore, Colombia was once 2nd placed in the world ranking of freshwater reserves, due to over-deforestation there they have fallen to a staggering 24th. Over-forest-clearance round the Malaysian capital of Kuala Lumpurcaused there to be strict water-rationing in 1998 and the city had to import water to cover itself. At the 1998 global climate treaty conference in Buenos Aires, Britain put forward the study discovered by the Institute of Ecology in Edinburgh, suggested the Amazon rainforest could be lost within 50 years due to shifts in rainfall patterns induced by global warming and land conversion. Decline of crop quality When land is cleared for agricultural purposes, usually slash and burn techniques are used. The area is clear cut then is burned to release the nutrients that are held within the biomass which results in leaving a layer of nutrient rich soil above the poor soils of the rainforest. The cleared area is quickly planted before the sun leaches the nutrients and the tropical rain washes the soil away. The now nutrient rich soil supports vigorous growth for a few years, after which the nutrient stock is depleted. This is because in the rainforest ecosystem, most of the nutrients are held within biomass and so therefore once the biomass is removed then the cycle is not completed (no nutrients being passed onto the litter store and so forth), which then leaves the area nutrient deficient, which will lead to declining crop quality and crop failure. This is because there is no dead vegetation to form nutrients. (To attempt to rectify this large amounts of fertilizers are imported which is costly and often ineffective as it can be washed away.) Plus, because there is no canopy cover the soils dry up which further adds to their thinness and infertility. In addition to lack of nutrients in crop growing areas, also because of forest clearance there will be a reduced amounts of rainfall (as mentioned above) occurring thus leading to drought and further jeopardizing the quality of crops. [image]Removal of Lack of [image]Forest nutrients declining crop [image]For agriculture (eventually) quality [image] Reduced rainfall Trees also anchor the soil with their roots, so also when they are removed for agriculture the few nutrients within the soil are more easily washed away (again causing importation of fertilizers). For example, Costa Rica loses 860 million tons of valuable topsoil every year, whilst the Indonesian island of Java loses 770 million metric tons of topsoil each year which could have been used to grow enough rice (1.5 million tons) to fulfill the needs of 11.5-15 million people As well as these factors contributing to declining crop quality there are other reasons. When land is cleared for crop use, generally one type of crop is planted (known as monoculture). When this type of single plantation is used then this makes the crop vulnerable to disease and pests, as periodic infestations have shown in Brazil, India and other places. This further damages the crop and can devastate harvests.

Tropical Rain Forest Desert 8.5 of 10 on the basis of 1100 Review.