Geography As Environmental Investigation

Geography As Environmental Investigation
As part of my AS Geography course, I am required to carry out an environmental investigation of an area of my choice. In order to complete this investigation, I will need to carry out further extensive research such as questionnaires and environmental quality scores, which will support my statements in my hypothesis. The area that I have chosen is Shepherds Bush, West London. Here a new shopping/cinema complex has recently been built, which may affect the eqs of some areas. Questions: 1. How can Environmental Quality be defined. 2. How does environmental quality vary in the area. 3. Has management in London improved the environmental quality of the area
Hypothesis: ? The environmental quality will vary across Shepherds Bush Green. ? Pedestrian levels will be highest at the new shopping /cinema complex. ? Litter levels will be highest at the new shopping/cinema complex due to the high number of people. ? A number of factors can be used to define environmental quality. ? Noise levels will be higher near the shopping /cinema due to the double effects of traffic and pedestrians. ? Management has helped reduce the environmental defects of the area. Location Map of Shepherds Bush [image] Methodology To successfully complete this investigation, I will need to use a variety of primary and secondary sources of information to gain more accurate and reliable information. Primary and secondary data collected Purpose Method Limitations eqs To obtain an average environmental quality score of the area. I will take an environmental quality score of at least fifty sites to gain an average As time is always an issue, I may not be able to go to all of the sites required. Pedestrian count To find out which site has the largest concentration of pedestrians. On each of the sites, I will count the number of people present in a certain amount of time. If I am the only one counting, it is possible that I may miss some pedestrians. Litter survey To find out the litter levels around the area. On each of the sites I will determine how much litter is on the street. The litter count can vary as the streets are cleaned at different types. Noise meter readings To find out how the noise levels will vary in the area. On each of the sites, I will use a Noise meter to gain readings on how noisy the area is in decibels. The readings could be disrupted by other sounds such as talking. Questionnaire To find the first hand opinions of the people that are prevalent in the area. I will present my questionnaire to at least one person on each of the sites. Many people may be too busy to answer the questions on the questionnaire. Traffic flow Used to find out number of vehicles in usage at each site On each of the sites I will count the number of vehicles in usage. If I am the only one counting, it is possible that I may miss some vehicles. Questionnaire: (Please circle your preferred answer) 1. How would you rate the environmental quality of the area. Poor 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Excellent 2. What would you consider as the worst problem in the area. Air pollution Traffic Litter Noise pollution Overcrowding 3. Do you think that there is enough greenery in the area. Yes No 4. How good do you think the public safety of the area is. Bad Fairly Good Good Excellent 5. What is your usual means of transport in this area ? Car Bus Walk Train Cycle Other 6. Do you Think that the new shopping/cinema complex has had a positive affect on the area. Yes No 7. What things will you like to be improved in the area. Parks Roads Shops Transportation Buildings Questionnaire results 1.How would you rate the environmental quality of the area. Rating Number of people/50 1 1 2 5 3 7 4 12 5 11 6 6 7 4 8 2 9 2 10 0 2. What would you consider as the worst problem in the area. Number of People/50 Air pollution 10 Traffic 6 Litter 12 Noise pollution 16 Overcrowding 6 3.Do you think that there is enough greenery in the area. Number of people /50 Yes 44 No 6 4. How good do you think the public safety of the area is. [image] 5. What is your usual means of transport in this area. [image] 6. Do you Think that the new shopping/cinema complex has had a positive affect on the area. [image] 7. What things will you like to be improved in the area. [image] Systematic Sampling The area of Shepherds Bush, West London has gone through a number of changes in recent years. This is one of the reasons why I have chosen this area to investigate the affects a new shopping/cinema complex has on the area. In order to find reliable information that will help my investigation, I will visit this area of Shepherds Bush and collect various primary data. Systematic sampling is the method which I will use. I will split the area into a grid of 50 sites to visit to ensure that I can accurately assess the environmental quality of the area. Some areas will not be accessible, in this situation I will have to assess the nearest landmark. The following data will be collected at each of the 50 sites. Environment quality score, Noise, Traffic flow, Litter, pedestrian flow. Data collection. Site eqs Noise Litter Pedestrian flow Traffic flow 1 +10 47 4 8 5 2 +13 49 5 10 7 3 +9 49 4 7 6 4 +14 57 9 14 8 5 +9 52 7 11 6 6 +17 50 10 9 5 7 +20 43 4 9 3 8 +21 40 2 6 3 9 +19 45 3 8 5 10 +17 41 5 4 4 11 +8 48 6 8 6 12 +9 47 4 6 5 13 +6 55 11 13 8 14 +21 40 1 4 4 15 +13 46 1 6 6 16 +11 48 4 7 5 17 +8 53 8 10 7 18 +10 59 16 15 10 19 +12 71 16 33 19 20 +11 67 14 21 17 21 +7 55 8 11 11 22 +9 47 5 7 9 23 +6 50 7 9 8 24 +10 51 6 6 8 25 +27 36 0 3 0 26 +24 39 1 5 2 27 +13 49 4 8 5 28 +11 59 5 7 12 29 +10 67 15 20 18 30 +14 68 11 16 16 31 +8 51 7 10 11 32 +6 51 4 8 10 33 +9 53 9 11 12 34 +4 59 5 13 13 35 +7 57 8 11 9 36 +10 48 6 9 7 37 +12 45 7 9 4 38 +11 56 9 12 8 39 +16 57 5 10 8 40 +13 55 6 9 6 41 +9 47 5 7 4 42 +8 49 7 9 5 43 +6 45 4 6 5 44 +10 50 5 7 7 45 +10 41 7 7 4 46 +11 40 4 4 3 47 +13 43 1 3 0 48 +11 42 1 6 2 49 +10 43 3 5 5 50 +14 40 6 7 3 Spearman?s Rank Correlation In order to see whether my different pieces of data can be correlated, I will need to use higher statistical techniques. The Spearman?s Rank correlation is one of the techniques that I can use to test some of the statements used in my hypothesis such as: 1. Higher traffic levels will lead to higher noise levels. 2. Higher pedestrian levels will lead to higher litter levels. In order to complete the Spearman?s rank I will need a Spearman?s rank formula to calculate correlation and a table to rank my data. [image] Calculation of Spearman?s rank Correlation Assertion: I believe that the higher the traffic flow within a site is, the higher the noise level also. Areas of high traffic and noise levels will be considered as poorer environmental quality as quieter areas are more desirable for a better quality of life. Correlation: The correlation that I have chosen is between traffic flow levels and noise meter levels within the area. Null hypothesis: The null hypothesis is that there is no relationship between traffic levels and noise levels. Alternative hypothesis: The alternative hypothesis is that there is a relationship between traffic levels and noise levels. Formula for Spearman?s rank Correlation: 6Sd² = 6 × 1427 = 8562 (n³-n) = 50 × 50 × 50 ? 50 = 124950 1 ? 6Sd² / n³-n = 8562 / 124950 = 0.0685234 ? 1 = 0.9314766 = 0.93 (2dp) From the data that I have received from carrying out the Spearman?s rank test, I have accepted the alternative hypothesis and rejected the null hypothesis. This means that there is a relationship between levels of traffic between and levels of noise within the area. An example of this shown in my data is that at site 26 the traffic flow was 2 which resulted in a noise level of 39 decibels. And at site 30, the traffic flow was 16, resulted in a noise level of 68. This may be because of the main road which provides easy access for vehicles. The large number of vehicles combined will create a lot of noise. [image] Calculation of Spearman?s rank Correlation Assertion: I believe that the higher the pedestrian levels within a site is, the higher the litter levels will be. Areas of high pedestrian and litter levels will be considered as poorer environmental quality as less crowded and cleaner areas are more desirable for a better quality of life. Correlation: The correlation that I have chosen is between pedestrian flow levels and litter levels within the area. Null hypothesis: The null hypothesis is that there is no relationship between pedestrian levels and litter levels. Alternative hypothesis: The alternative hypothesis is that there is a relationship between pedestrian levels and litter levels. Formula for Spearman?s rank Correlation: 6Sd² = 6 × 156 = 936 (n³-n) = 50 × 50 × 50 ? 50 = 124950 1 ? 6Sd² / n³-n = 936 / 124950 = 0.007490996 ? 1 = 0.992509003 = 0.99 (2dp) From the data that I have received from carrying out the Spearman?s rank test, I have accepted the alternative hypothesis and rejected the null hypothesis. This means that there is a relationship between the pedestrian levels and litter levels within the area which I am investigating. An example of this shown in my data is that at site 26 the pedestrian flow was 1 which resulted in a litter level of 1. And at site 29, the pedestrian flow was 20, which resulted in a litter level of 15. This may be because of the affects of the new developments in the area. New developments have caused an increase in the number of pedestrians who will also increase the levels of litter in certain areas.

Geography As Environmental Investigation 8 of 10 on the basis of 1777 Review.