Tourism in Dubai

Tourism in Dubai
The broad context of this project is based on the ? managing tourism? part of my geography course. The aim of this project is to study the reasons of the rapid growth of tourism in Dubai and the different ways of identifying and classifying the different types of tourists that visit Dubai. Objective: To create three different hypotheses related to tourism and tourists in Dubai that can be tested using a range of primary and secondary data collection techniques. Hypothesis 1: Most tourists come from Europe. Hypothesis 2: Most tourists come to Dubai for the weather and the beach. Hypothesis 3: Figure 1 The further the distance tourists come from, the longer they stay in Dubai. Justification of Hypothesis1: Most tourists come from Europe In Dubai, most things are cheap as there are no taxes. However, all countries in Europe have high taxes are very high so the low prices of goods in the uae attract a lot of European tourists. Figure 2 clearly shows the difference of taxes in Europe and the U.A.E. Average total % taxes in Europe Total % taxes in the U.A.E 40.8% 0% Figure 2 Tourists from Europe come to the Dubai when it is winter in their country; they come to appreciate the warm weather on the beach. Since the Euro currency started more Europeans come to Dubai as it is more beneficial for them. From figure 3 we can see that 38% of the tourists were European and that is the largest category. However, this was in 2002 and I will see if my hypothesis is correct for 2005. Breakdown of foreign visitors to Dubai by nationality in 2002 [image] Figure 3 Justification of hypothesis 2: Most tourists come to Dubai for the Beach and the weather When it is winter in other countries, the tourists come to Dubai to appreciate the good weather. If the weather is good then it is ideal to go to the beach because in other continents such as Europe or America people can only go to the beach in summer because that is the only time the weather is good enough. Also, in other countries, beaches are crowded during summer and they can also be dirty, which is not the case in Dubai.
Figure 4 In figure 5 we can see that 44% of the tourists come to Dubai for the weather and beach and it is the largest category. However, this was in 2002 and I want to see if my hypothesis is correct for 2005. Breakdown of Dubai visitors by purpose of visit (2002) Business 39% Beach and Weather 44% [image] Figure 5 Figure 6 It is well known that in the U.A.E the weather is nice all year round. Apart from July and august where we can see in figure 6 that the line is at it?s highest point. However, it quickly decreases and goes back to the ideal weather of Dubai that tourists like. We can see in the climate graph that the amount of rainfall throughout the year is extremely low, from May to November there isn?t more than 3mm of rainfall. As we can see, the climate in Dubai is very suitable for tourists, especially for Europeans. This is because in Europe, the climate is very cold nearly all year round and it even rains in summer. Climate Graph of Dubai (2004) Justification: The further the distance tourists come from the longer they stay Tourists that come from far countries (e.g. American countries) would stay in the U.A.E as long as possible. The airplane tickets to get to the U.A.E are expensive, especially during the rush season. Usually only rich tourists would afford to come to the U.A.E for a short period of time. Continent Average flight price South America aed 4,500 North America aed 4,100 Far East aed 3,170 Australia aed 3,000 Europe aed 2,700 Africa aed 1,400 Middle East aed 1,000 Figure 7 The most expensive flights would be from America and Far East Asia. We can assume from the high prices that most tourists from these continents would stay longer in Dubai than tourists from closer areas. Tourism in Dubai Figure 8 [image] The substantial growth of the tourism activity clearly marks tourism as one of the biggest economic and social phenomena of the past century. The number of international arrivals shows an evolution from a mere 25 million international arrivals in 1950 to approximately 763 million in 2004. Figure 9 During this period, development was particularly strong in Asia and the Pacific and in the Middle East while the Americas and Europe grew at a slower pace. New destinations are steadily increasing their market share while Europe and the Americas have less dynamic growth. [image] In Dubai, tourism has been increasing rapidly similarly to fig (world). We can see this in figure 9 where tourism has increased by 8.2% between 1998 and 2004. The graph also shows the estimated number of tourists that will come in the future. According to the graph, tourism will increase by 5% between 2004 and 2010. By looking at the dramatic increase of tourists in Dubai, we can assume that tourism is an important factor in the economy in Dubai and that it is the fastest growing industry. Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries today. Tourism is now an important factor in the economy of developed countries and also less economically developed countries. Tourism has become a possible way to obtain income and to create new jobs. Many countries develop quickly due to the increase of tourism in the country. In the 20th century, the people from the middle classes started to go on holiday. Before the 20th century, only the rich could afford to go on holiday. At the time, most of the holidays would have been organized by the tourists themselves. However, as time went by, there were more package holidays available. These are holidays that are set for a period of time, accommodation and predetermined meals are all included in the price. The prices of these package holidays were well within the range of most people who lived in M.E.D.C countries. After the Second World War most of the class barriers broke down. People from the lower classes started to travel and have a view of the world. In the 1950?s onwards, exposure to television and computers made people want to travel due to publicity. The government also encouraged tourism. This is shown in figure 10: Figure 10 Reducing the working hours for more leisure time (shown in fig?) Offering longer holidays with pay Slowly rising the salaries so more people would be able to afford to go on holiday Reducing the price of airplane tickets Building airports near to large holiday resorts so tourists can travel in large numbers Bar graph showing the number of weekly working hours in medc countries [image] Figure 11 The amount of leisure time has increased dramatically over the past 40 years. This is because jobs come with a holiday entitlement which is paid for. In the 1950?s, the average number of working hours was 50 hours; this is illustrated in figure 11 If we divide this by five which is the number of days people work in a week we get 10. Working 10 hours a day would seem too much nowadays. The increase in car ownership has given people much greater freedom to choose where and when they go for the day or for a longer period of time. We can see the results of this in figure 12: Figure 12 Area Graph showing annual vehicle miles of travel from 1960 to 2000, for total, urban, and rural Annual travel on the highways reached an estimated 2.7 trillion vehicle-miles in 2000, which is four times the level in 1960. Travel grew about 47% during the 1960?s, another 38% in the 1970?s, and another 37% in the 1980?s, and another 26% in the 1990?s. Advertising has made people even more aware of the range of holidays and recreational activities available to them. Foreign exchange rates were sometimes advantageous, which made certain overseas holidays cheaper. The increased education gave many people the desire to experience other cultures. The differences of climate in some countries, made people travel just for a nicer weather. Tourists can be classified into three different classes. Fig 13 shows this. Table showing classification of tourists Classification of tourist Meaning of the classificaton Nature of activity Tourists can be either active or passive. Active tourists go on holiday which involves them in some kind of sporting activity. An example is a skiing holiday. Passive holidays involve sight seeing or relaxing on the beach. Locational preference Some tourists take their holidays at coastal resorts, others prefer mountainous areas. Duration of trip and distance traveled These categories are dictated by social and economic circumstances. Now people have more time and are able to afford to take long or short holidays. Longer holidays tend to be the main holiday of the year. Figure 13 Figure 14 [image]Model showing tourist destination development Dubai completed stage 1 of the model and is now in stage 2 where tourism in increasing dramatically in Dubai. Tourism in Dubai is still in stage 2 since early 1990?s and it is estimated that it will continue to increase until 2010. In 2004 there were 4.5 million tourists that came to Dubai compare to 1998 where 2.8 million tourists came to Dubai. This is illustrated in figure 14 It has yet not been estimated when Dubai will reach stage 3 because it is continuing to develop at a rapid pace every year. Stage 4 is when tourism destroys the country: prices become too high, unemployment increases as tourism declines, fall in house prices, beaches and natural environments become dirty. However, Dubai is not planning in reaching stage 4 as it is confident in managing it?s tourism in a sustainable way. Tourism development in Dubai In Dubai, tourism is the most rapidly increasing sector of the economy. Dubai used to rely on its petrol resources to survive. However, now, the economy of Dubai is relying fully on tourism for its future. Over the past two years, Dubai has the fastest tourism increase rate in the world. However, rapid growth in tourism means there will be an impact on the environment: There will be more construction of hotels and projects like the Palm Islands and The World Islands. Dubai has realized in time that a rapid growth in tourism will need an effective management. Otherwise, the country will be destroyed by tourism and then, it will eventually not become a tourist destination anymore. This has happened to several countries and Dubai knows that they shouldn?t make the same mistake. Everyone is contributing to help in managing the tourism: The Dubai Government is setting laws and the ruling family is managing other things such as the new projects. The development authorities and the government of England are also helping and trying to keep the U.A.E a clean country. The Dubai government are also aware that it if there is a rapid tourism growth then they either have to slow the rate of this or keep up with it by building new homes, roads, malls?etc Right now Dubai is preparing itself to receive the tourists in the next couple of years, we can see this in figure 15. Figure 15 [image]Map showing development projects in Dubai Dubai is not only developing itself on land but also, it has marine based developments as we can see in figure 15. Once all the developments are finished, Dubai is estimated to be two to three times its actual size. Many new residences are currently being built, a new airport is being built; International Airport Jabel Ali and other projects such as Dubai Land are starting. Dubai is also planning on improving transportation facilities and is planning to build a metro. We can see this in figure 16. Figure 16 Map showing the future metro lines in Dubai [image] [image] [image] [image] [image] [image] Burjuman mall is one of my survey sites. It has recently opened and has done a lot of advertising in the city attracting many customers and tourists. Dubai city centre is another survey site. We can perhaps say that Dubai City Centre is currently the most popular mall. Introduction to survey sites in Dubai I decided to go to malls for my survey because the weather at this time of the year can be a bit too hot for tourists to be outdoors. I guessed that I would find more of them indoors, it is also a fact that Dubai shopping malls is one the main tourist attractions. Many tourists come to Dubai because usually everything would be cheaper. These two shopping malls are one of the best shopping malls in Dubai, however, there are other good malls such Mercato. The two malls that I have selected for my survey have approximately 300 to 400 customers everyday, therefore, there is higher chance for me to find tourists. I could have also done my survey in hotels but it is rare that they would give permission for college students. Also, in malls I would find a wider range of tourists: tourists from different classes and countries. In hotels there tends to be more tourists from the rich classes. I could have done my survey at the beach or the creek, but again, you wouldn?t find a lot of tourists outdoors because of the weather at this time of the year. Both malls are situated in Deira because for know, Deira is the centre of attraction of Dubai. However, due to the developments, other places such as Jabel Ali will also become a center of attraction in Dubai, but for now, Deira is where most tourists settle in hotels because it is the cbd of Dubai. Sequence of study In order to conduct my project I need to plan an effective sequence of investigation. Now, I have completed my introduction. This includes: my hypothesizes and justifications, general aim and objective, background knowledge of Dubai and the reasons for the survey sites that I have chosen. In chapter 2 I will plan on how I will collect my data. The methods of primary data collection will be included and reasons for the method that I have chosen and a description on how I obtained the data. I will also describe my secondary data collection. In chapter 3 I will present the data that I have collected using a variety of ways and different types of graphs. In chapter 4 I will analyse my graphs in order to describe and explain any patterns or trends that are evident. I will then write a brief evaluation of my project and see how I could improve my investigation in the future. Chapter 2 In this chapter I describe the different primary and secondary data collection methods that I used for this project. I also state the reasons of why I have chosen those methods. This chapter also includes how I planned and collected the data, along with a description of the sampling methods used and a brief evaluation. Primary Data collection There are several methods of data collection that I can use. I can do questionnaires: ? Questionnaires ? Surveys ? Observation ? Tally counts I will use questionnaires to collect my data because it is the quickest and most efficient way of collecting information that will prove or disprove my hypotheses. Questionnaires will allow me to get more specific and reliable information. I did not use my questionnaire straight away. At first, I used a pilot questionnaire to see what problems there were with it. I tested my pilot questionnaire 10 times in Dubai City Centre. From testing the questionnaires I have also learnt how to present myself to the tourists for them to accept in answering the questionnaire. On the next page is the pilot questionnaire. After having done the testing I have found that there are several mistakes in it. Firstly, I have forgotten to put in two sections for me to fill in. In the first section I must fill in the place that I am doing my questionnaire and in the second section I must fill in whether the person answering is male or female. Also, too many questions are answered in yes and no. If I leave it like this my data presentation will be very simple and I will not be able to deeply analyze my data. (Pilot)Geography Questionnaire 1) Are you here as a ? Businessman ? Tourist ? Both 2) Where do you come from?
Europe
Other, please specify: ??????????
3) What are your reasons for coming to Dubai? ? Environment (beach, desert?etc) ? Weather ? Shopping ? Family visit ? Culture ? Other, please specify: ????????? 4) Is shopping in general cheaper or more expensive than your residing country 5) *Only if person is from Europe- Is it more beneficial for you since the Euro currency started?
Yes
No
6) Did you come to the U.A.E while it is winter your country?
Yes
No
7) Do you go to the beaches because:
It is not crowded
In your residing country you can only go to the beach in summer
because it is too cold.
Other, please specify:
?????????????????????????????.
8) How long are you staying in Dubai?
1-3 days
4-7 days
More than 1 week
More than 2 weeks
More than 3 weeks
On the next page is my final questionnaire that I will use for my investigation Figure 20 Table showing the problems and solutions to the questions in the pilot questionnaire Question Number Problem and Solution Question 1 No problems Question 2 Asking where the tourist comes from is not what I want to know. I want to know what the tourist?s residing country is. I will change the question to: Which country have you traveled from? Question 3 I must separate the category ?Environment? into two categories: Beach and Desert. I must also add some more categories because too many tourists filled in the ?Other? category e.g. Property Question 4 - I should make a range of answers for the tourist to select from. I will change the question to: Is shopping in general (circle answer) Much more expensive More expensive The same Cheaper Much cheaper Question 5 It is not a relevant question. It can only be asked if the tourist is from Europe. I will not use this question anymore in the questionnaire. Question 6 The question is not relevant. Most people come from the Northern Hemisphere where it is summer. I will change this question to: In which month would you have preferred to come to Dubai? I will also add another question that asks: How do you find the weather in Dubai? Cold Normal Hot Too hot Question 7 The choices I give to the tourist to select from are not good. Also, before asking the question I have to ask if that person has already been to the beach. Then I ask: Do you find that the beaches are: Too crowded 1 2 3 4 Empty Many facilities 1 2 3 4 Not enough facilities Clean 1 2 3 4 Dirty Easy to get to 1 2 3 4 Hard to get to Question 8 The question of how long the tourist is staying in Dubai should be at the beginning of the questionnaire. Other changes I will also change the layout of my questionnaire to improve it?s presentation. I will use pictures on the questionnaire to make it more presentable. To do this I will use Publisher. Instead of having bullet points for the person to circle I will draw boxes for the person to tick from. I will put the questions in text boxes so it is easier for me change the layout. Now I need to justify the questions in my questionnaire to see how the questions will help me prove or disprove my hypothesis. Hypothesis 1: Most tourists come from Europe Hypothesis 2: Most tourists come to Dubai for the weather and the beach. Hypothesis 3: The longer the distance come from the longer they stay in Dubai. Table showing Justification of Questionnaire Figure 21 Question Number Justification Question 1 No justification Question 2 It is important for me to know if the person I am asking is a tourist or a businessman. Even though the person I am asking is a businessman who will stay in Dubai for a short period of time is considered a tourist because he will be visiting the country in his free time. Question 3 In my first hypothesis I stated that most tourists come from Europe. Therefore, I need to know where the tourist has traveled from. I also need to ask this question to test my third hypothesis which is the longer the distance come from the longer they stay in Dubai. Question 4 In my third hypothesis I stated that the longer the distance the tourist comes from the longer they will stay so as well as asking where they traveled from I also need to know how long they are staying to test my hypothesis. I need both question 1 and 2 to test this hypothesis. Question 5 This is a very useful question as it is linked to hypothesis 1 and 2. In hypothesis 1, I state that the tourist comes from Europe. The reason is because In Dubai most things are cheap as there are no taxes. However, In Europe taxes are very high so the low prices of goods in the uae attract a lot of tourists from Europe. Europeans come to Dubai as it is more beneficial for them. Therefore, a major reason of Europeans coming to Dubai is for shopping. In my questionnaire I need to ask the reasons that the tourist came to Dubai in order for me to test my 1st hypothesis. My second hypothesis is that most tourists come to Dubai for the weather and the beach. To test this hypothesis I need to know the reasons of why the tourist came to Dubai. Question 6 In my first hypothesis I stated that most tourists come from Europe. This is because most things in the uae are cheaper. To be sure about this I need to ask the tourist if he finds shopping cheaper or more expensive. Question 7 This question will help me to test hypothesis 1 and 2. In my first hypothesis I think that most tourists come from Europe to appreciate the good weather. I have taken in consideration that many tourists would have preferred to be in the uae at a different time of the year due to the weather. This also applies to hypothesis 2 because fewer tourists come in this time of the year for the weather as it is too hot, in December more tourists would come for the weather. However, even at this time of the year, many people appreciate the weather. Question 8 My second hypothesis states that most tourists come to Dubai for the weather. Therefore, I have to ask them how they find the weather and if they like it or not. Question 9 My second hypothesis also states that most tourists come to Dubai for the beach. I need to ask the tourists first if they went to the beach and secondly how they find certain things. This is because I think that tourists go to the beach in Dubai a lot because it is not crowded, therefore it is clean and the scenery is beautiful. Therefore I need to ask the tourist?s opinion on several things about the beach in order to test the second hypothesis. Data Sampling Methods Figure 22 Now I have to find a way to sample my data subjects without introducing bias and errors. I will choose from one of the three main Sampling Methods which are show in figure 22. Table showing Data Sampling Methods and their descriptions Sampling Method Description of Method Random Use random number tables to select sample site. Each point selected has the same chance of selection as all other sites. Stratified The most accurate method involves an initial analysis of the population being studied and its division into categories. The sample is allocated to the size of these categories, and specific sites are then selected by random techniques. This method ensures that the results are a true representation of the whole population. Systematic Uses a rule or a set procedure to determine the sample site or person, e.g. to ask every tenth person, or sample every 100 meters. I have chosen to use Systematic sampling because it is the quickest and easiest one for me to do. My rule will be: I interview every fifth tourist. Using the questionnaire I will collect the data that I need, but there are different ways in which I could do this:
Face to face
Telephone
Postal
Drop and collect
I decided to do face to face interview because they are the quickest and most efficient. The other methods have drawbacks e.g. using the telephone may introduce gender bias and mail surveys have a poor response rate. (Sometimes I used drop and collect) I got a letter from the teacher which allows me to conduct my survey. On the 25th of April I went to Ghurair mall at 12 pm to do my survey. I went on a Thursday because this is the weekend and it is the day where I would most likely find tourists. I went at 12 pm because it is the time for lunch, so by going to the restaurants and cafes in the mall I would find more tourists together which makes it easy and quick for me. Also, if the tourist is sitting down and relaxing then there is a higher possibility for the tourist to accept to answering my questions. Then at 4pm I went to the creek and I found a lot of tourists over there, but there were more businessmen than tourists. At 5.30pm I went to Dubai city centre. However, at this time, the mall was very crowded and tourists were in a hurry so I did not manage to interview many tourists. At the end of the day I surveyed 50 questionnaires. When I questioned the tourists I firstly introduced myself, then I explained about the geography project that I was doing and then I asked if they wanted to get interviewed. Fortunately, I know how to speak two other languages fluently: Arabic and French. At certain occasions, some tourists did not know how to speak English and I used my French and Arabic to translate the questions to them. When I finished the interview I would thank the tourist and go and find another one. Figure 23 Question Data Q1) How many males and females Male |||| |||| |||| |||| ||| Female |||| |||| ||| Q2) Age groups 19-29 |||| |||| |||| ||| 30-39 |||| || 40-49 |||| ||| 50-59 ||| 60+ Q3) Length of holiday 1-3 days || 1 week or less |||| 2 weeks or less |||| |||| 3 weeks or less |||| |||| ||| 4 weeks or more |||| | Q4) Which continent they have traveled from Asia |||| |||| |||| North America |||| South America || Africa |||| | Europe |||| || Australasia || Q5) Reasons for coming to Dubai Weather |||| |||| |||| | Shopping |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| Family visit |||| || Desert (Safari) |||| Beach and Creek |||| |||| |||| Entertainment |||| |||| | Leisure |||| Property |||| || Q6) Prices compared to their country Much more expensive |||| More expensive |||| The same |||| |||| Cheaper |||| |||| Much cheaper |||| |||| Q7) Months they prefer to come to Dubai January ||| February |||| March |||| | April |||| May | June | July August September October | November |||| | December |||| |||| Q8) Opinion on the weather Cold Normal | Hot |||| |||| |||| |||| | Too hot |||| |||| |||| Q9) Do they the weather the as it is Yes |||| |||| |||| |||| No |||| |||| | Q10) Have they visited the beach Yes |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| || No |||| 1 2 3 4 Too crowed |||| |||| || |||| |||| | |||| |||| Empty Many facilities |||| |||| | |||| | |||| | |||| |||| Not enough facilities Clean |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| | || |||| Dirty Easy to get to |||| |||| |||| |||| |||| ||| ||| | Hard to get Secondary Data Collection I obtained my secondary data from the internet and my geography text book. I also used the atlas to get some information on the uae and Dubai. I used the geography text book and the atlas because they have relevant information for my project. I used the internet as well because it has more detailed information about Dubai and also the internet websites are up-to-date. I used the tourism section of my geography text and used the relevant information. On the internet I searched for tourism websites on search engines and I also searched for the Dubai Tourism Department website. Limitations and Problems Even though I have made every effort to be as unbiased and representative as possible it was very difficult to guarantee this during my data collection.. Therefore the study can only be recognized as tentative, partial and incomplete. One of the problems I had was the communication with the tourists. Some tourists only new a little bit of English and it was hard for me to understand what they were saying, but I am a fluent Arabic and French speaker so this problem was reduced. Women sometimes did not want to fill in the age category that they belonged to. I had some transport problems but I just walked to get to the creek. In Dubai City centre it was too crowded and few tourists accepted to get interviewed. Chapter 3 and 4- Data Presentation and Analysis In this chapter, I will attempt to use a variety of presentational techniques to display the primary data that I have collected in chapter 2. I will also attempt an analysis of these graphs to help me prove or disprove my hypothesizes. I will make my graphs mainly using I.C.T. Analysis of Diagram showing relative cost of shopping I have chosen to make the diagram in figure 24 because it is a very clear way to illustrate my data. The diagram shows the relative cost of shopping from each continent to Dubai. At first sight we see that two continents; Africa and Russia have the same relative cost of shopping to Dubai. This means that due to the currency changes and taxes, shopping in Dubai, becomes neither more expensive nor less expensive than in their country. Then we see that Australasia and the Middle East have better benefits when shopping in Dubai because it is less expensive for them. Out of all the continents, only European tourists have the much better benefits of shopping in Dubai because shopping in their countries would be much more expensive. America is the only continent that actually loses benefits if they shop in Dubai because it is more expensive in Dubai than in America. This diagram helps me to prove that Hypothesis 1 is correct because it shows to me clearly that European tourists are the ones that benefit the most from shopping in Dubai and figure 26 shows us that shopping is one of the main reasons for tourists coming to Dubai. If that is true, then we can assume that most tourists come from Europe because they benefit the most from their holidays in Dubai economically. The reason why I have found these results is because Europe is known to be an expensive place to live in or to go on holiday. This is shown in figure 2 where the total % of taxes in Europe is 40.8% whilst in Dubai it is 0%. Then it wouldn?t be a surprise if there are big numbers of tourists from Europe coming to Dubai every year. Analysis of chloropleth map showing number of tourists from each continent and percentage of tourists from each continent that went to Dubai for the beach and weather The graph that I have chosen to use in figure 25 is a choropleth map. The reason why I have chosen to use this is because it is an excellent method of showing differences in densities or relative volume. The graph shows the number of tourists that came in Dubai from each continent and it also shows the percentage of tourists from each continent that came to Dubai for the beach and weather. At first sight we see straight away that most tourists came to Dubai were from Far East Asia and Europe. It also evident that were tourists came the least from was Australasia and America. When looking at the colour, it is evident that as whole, most tourists came to Dubai for the weather and the beach. From the map, we can see that most tourists came from Far East Asia, 17 out of the 50 tourists were from Far East Asia and only 12 tourists were European. This data proves that hypothesis 1 is incorrect because it shows to me that most tourists came from Far East Asia and not from Europe. My hypothesis states that most tourists come from Europe. Therefore, it is incorrect. However, bias might have been introduced because when I went to Burjuman mall there were a lot of Philippine tourists. This data links to figure 2 which is a graph that divides tourists by their nationality in 2002. However, figure 4 shows that most tourists were European. Therefore there are three possible reasons of why my hypothesis is incorrect: 1. I introduced bias into my data 2. Figure is not a reliable source 3. Less Europeans visited Dubai after 2002 and more Asians visited Dubai. In Europe and Middle East Asia, 80% to 100% of the tourists came to Dubai for the weather and beach. No continent has below 40% for the percentage of tourists that came to Dubai for the beach and weather. This shows me that weather and beach is a major attraction for tourists in Dubai. The data shows that hypothesis 2 is correct because it shows me that most tourists came to Dubai for the beach and weather. My hypothesis states that most tourists come to Dubai for the beach and weather. If I trust the graph, then it is correct. This is perfectly logical because if you look back at figure 4 you can that the beaches in Dubai are extremely beautiful and clean and the weather is ideal. This is what would attract many tourists. Also, figure 4 shows that 44% of the tourists came to Dubai for the weather and beach in 2002. However, my choropleth map is not detailed enough about tourist?s purpose of visit for me to extend whether my hypothesis is correct or not. Therefore I will make a radial diagram showing the different reasons for tourists coming to Dubai. Radial diagram showing the different reasons for tourists coming to Dubai [image] The graph that I have chosen to use is a radial diagram. The reason I have chosen to use this is because they are good to show a range of information, alternatives or choices. The general trend is that the largest response was for shopping, then for the beach and creek, then the weather. I will leave out shopping because I have surveyed most of my questionnaires in shopping malls. That is why shopping has the largest response. Therefore, I will ignore the results for shopping and look at the other reasons. Beach and creek and weather are the next obvious trends with the largest response. It seems all the other reasons have a very low response: they do not go above 19. Desert has the poorest response with 8 people out of the 50 respondents. Beach and Creek and weather have each 28 responses which makes them a major attraction in Dubai. It seems that Dubai?s attraction as a specialist leisure and desert destination is limited as one of the smallest number of responses with figures of 8 and 10 responses. This data helps me to prove that hypothesis 2 is correct because the diagram shows that Beach and Creek and weather are the major attractions of Dubai. Hypothesis 2 states that most tourists come to Dubai for the weather and beach. Therefore, the data proves that my hypothesis is correct. This shows that since 2002, the main reason for tourist visits in Dubai still hasn?t changed: Beach and weather. Figure 4 shows that 44% of tourists came to Dubai for the beach and weather which is the largest category. Dubai Jumeirah beach is currently undertaking the most expensive sustainable development in the world. Analysis of Pictorial graph showing tourist?s opinion of weather The graph that I have chosen to use is a pictorial graph. The reason that I chosen to use this is because they are visually appealing diagrams and the data that I have to present is not a large quantity. The graph shows the opinion of tourists on the weather of Dubai and we can clearly see a positive response. Although a lot of tourists find that the weather is hot they still like it. However, there is a bunch of tourists who dislike the weather. Out of the 50 respondents, there are 38 positive responses and that is 76% of the tourists. Therefore, 24% of the tourists dislike the weather. This data helps me to prove that hypothesis 2 is correct because it shows me that the majority of tourists like the weather in Dubai. Hypothesis 2 states that most tourists come to Dubai for the beach and weather. If most tourists like the weather, then we can assume that it is a major reason of why they came to Dubai. Although this only proves half the hypothesis, weather and beach are usually connected, if the weather is nice then it would be ideal to go to the beach. Figure 6 which is a climate graph shows that in April the average temperature was? This temperature is not too high so I think that the tourists were not being honest. You might have tourists that want to be positive and would lie about what they really think. You might also have tourists that are negative about everything and all this affects my result. Therefore I changed my question to a way where the tourist would be more honest and did a bar graph showing the months that the tourists would have preferred to come to. Bar chart showing the months that the tourists would have preferred to come to Dubai Figure 28 [image]The graph that I have chosen to use is a bar chart. The reason I have chosen to use this is because they are used to show discrete data. The data that I need to present is discrete. They give a visual overview of the distribution of the categories and show the most frequent factor. The graph shows the months that tourists would have preferred to come to in Dubai, rather than the month they came to Dubai. The tourists that I have surveyed came to Dubai in April. Truly, that is not a convenient month to come to Dubai, in terms of weather, events and time. At first sight, we clearly see that December is a popular month for the tourists, although April is also a popular choice. However, if we look at it from a different angle we will see that April is not such a popular choice. Firstly, the tourists might have not been honest; they might tend to choose April because that is the month that they came to Dubai. Secondly, between September and February there are 34 responses whilst there are only 16 responses between March and August. This data helps me to prove that hypothesis 2 is correct because the graph clearly shows that the majority of tourists would have preferred to come in another period of the year. If we assume that it is due to the weather then it proves that hypothesis 2 is correct. Although it only proves half the hypothesis, beach and weather are connected; if the weather is bad people won?t go to the beach. December is a popular month for the tourists and if we look at the month of December in figure 6. In December in the climate graph, the average weather is 21 degrees Celsius which is very warm and ideal. On figure 28 the only other month that stands out is April with 9 responses. However, this could be bias as well. Also if we look at months May to September we see that there are very few responses, this is because the temperature is too high during that time. In figure 6 we see that the temperature reached 36 degrees Celcius which is a very ideal climate to have a holiday. Also this data only helps me to answer half my hypothesis, now I need to present data about the beaches in Dubai. Many facilities Compound Bar Graph showing the opinion of tourists on the beaches of Dubai Easy to get to Crowded Crowded Many facilities Easy to get to Many facilities Easy to get to Crowded Many facilities Easy to get to Crowded Crowded Many facilities Easy to get to Crowded Many facilities Crowded Many facilities Figure 29 Dirty Crowded Clean Hard to get to Empty Not enough facilities [image] Easy to get to The graph I have chosen to use is a compound bar graph. The reason I have chosen to use this is because the data is converted into percentage showing the proportions clearly. Now I can make comparisons between the factors. The graph shows the opinion of tourists on the beaches in Dubai. The graph shows the tourists opinions by giving four factors: property, density, access and facilities. For most factors there is generally a positive response. Access and property are the two factors that have the most positive response. Unlike facilities and density: where the opinions are much more even for each level. The reason for this is because it depends to which beach the tourist goes. If a tourist goes to a public beach then, he will find that it?s empty and if a tourist goes to a private beach, then there will be more facilities available. There is a positive response to property and access because all beaches in Dubai are kept clean and all big cities in the U.A.E are located on the coast so there would be no access problems. The most positive response is for property, where 85% of the tourists find the beaches clean. Access also has a very clear positive response where 77% of the tourists find it easy to get to. .According to the graph, there isn?t any negative response but the worst response is for facilities: 25% of the tourists find that there aren?t enough facilities on the beaches. I have worked an average and found out that 74% of the tourists have a positive opinion on the beaches in the U.A.E. This data helps me to prove that hypothesis 2 is correct because it shows me that the majority of the tourists have a positive opinion on the beaches in Dubai. My hypothesis states that most tourists come to the Dubai for the weather and beach. If the tourists have a positive opinion on the beaches, then we can assume that the tourists come to Dubai for the beach. However, the data does not tell me if the tourists come to Dubai for the weather. Therefore, this data only backs up half of hypothesis 2. This data has not helped me to prove if hypothesis 1 is correct because the data shows the opinion of tourists together. It does not show the opinion of tourists from each country or continent. If the data did show this then, it would have helped me to prove or disprove hypothesis 1. If the Europeans had a positive opinion to the beaches in Dubai then I would have guessed that many tourists come from Europe. These results are expected because of the picture of the beach in figure 4. The picture shows a beautiful white sandy beach with beautiful scenery. On the picture it seems that the beach is clean and empty like the results in figure 29. Graph showing the length of stay at Dubai of tourists from different continents Figure 30 [image] The graph that I have chosen to use is a compound bar graph because they can be used to show proportions and make comparisons. The graph shows the length of stay of tourists at Dubai from different continents. We can see that a big proportion of tourists from each continent stayed in Dubai for 8 to 14 days apart from Middle East Asia. It is clear tourists from Middle East Asia have not stayed for more than 7 days and that no tourist from Australia has stayed in Dubai for less than 8 days. In Europe, 55% of the tourists stayed in Dubai for 8 to 14 days and in North America 50% of the tourists stayed for the same amount of time. It seems that most tourists tend to stay in Dubai for 8 to 14 days; exactly 32% of the tourists. While only 19% of the tourists stayed in Dubai for more than 22 days. These tend to be the tourists that come from far continents like Australasia where 50% of their tourists stayed in Dubai for more than 22 days. This data helps me to prove that hypothesis 3 is correct because it shows to me, although unclearly, that tourists from far continents stay for a longer period of time. My hypothesis states that the distance tourists come from, the longer they stay in Dubai. However, it is not clear enough for me to prove my hypothesis to a higher extent. Therefore, this data is a very vague in terms of proving my hypothesis. The reason why I have these results is because it links to my figure 7 which shows the costs of flights to Dubai from Different continents. Now if I link figure 30 with figure 7 then I can analyze the data more deeply: flight tickets from Australia to Dubai cost averagely AED3000 and 50% of the Australians stayed in Dubai for more than 22 days, this helps me to prove that my hypothesis is correct. Flight tickets from the Middle East cost averagely AED1000 and from figure 30 I see that no tourists from that area have stayed any longer than 7 days. From this, I can conclude that the further the distance tourists come from the longer they stay. However, I would like my data to be clearer so I will combine figure 7 and figure 30. Analysis of diagram showing length of stay of tourists, and distances and flight ticket costs from different continents I have chosen to make the diagram in figure 31 to gather a lot of information together for me to be able to analyze the data more deeply. In the diagram I have combined the data from figure 7 and figure 30. We can see that the tourists from America which is approximately 12,000km to 15,000km pay a high price of aed 4000 to aed 5000 for the flight ticket. For this reason, 88% of the tourists from America stayed in Dubai for more than 15 days, of which 30% stayed more than 22 days. While on the other hand, African tourists who are approximately 3500km to 4000km away from Dubai pay only aed 1300 to AED2500. These prices are nearly half the price that American tourists pay for and that is why 50% of the African tourists stayed in Dubai for 8 to 14 days. This data helps me to prove that hypothesis 3 is correct because it shows me very clearly that the further the distance tourists come from the longer they stay in Dubai. The major reason for this is because of the prices of the tickets and that is why this data links to figure 7 which shows the prices of tickets from each continent. Chapter 5 In this chapter I attempt to draw conclusions from the data that I have collected and analyzed. It includes going back to my hypothesis and drawing conclusions supported by evidence. I attempt to identify a number of limitations and suggest how I could have taken the study to a higher level. Hypothesis 1: Most tourists come from Europe This is a very straight forward hypothesis that can be proved or disproved by showing a graph that shows the number of tourists from each continent. My hypothesis has been disproved. My justification of the hypothesis was because taxes in Europe are very high whilst there are no taxes in Dubai. As well as that Dubai has all the characteristics to please tourists. However, Dubai attracts all tourists from different continents. Although my justification of the hypothesis was logical it turned out that most tourists came from Far East Asia. Therefore, my data isn?t suggesting that my hypothesis is incorrect but it directly disproves my hypothesis. The only argument I can have is that my data was incidentally biased. This is because in Burjuman there are many Philippines and Malaysians. In Dubai, you have malls where you have a lot of people from a certain nationality. Dubai City Centre, however, isn?t a mall where there is certain group of people. I conclude that some biased information has entered into my data gathered and affected it. In Dubai, most things are cheap as there are no taxes. However, all countries in Europe have high taxes are very high so the low prices of goods in the uae attract a lot of European tourists. Figure 2 clearly shows the difference of taxes in Europe and the U.A.E. Average total % taxes in Europe Total % taxes in the U.A.E 40.8% 0% Figure 2 Tourists from Europe come to the Dubai when it is winter in their country; they come to appreciate the warm weather on the beach. Since the Euro currency started more Europeans come to Dubai as it is more beneficial for them. From figure 3 we can see that 38% of the tourists were European and that is the largest category. Although figure 3 supports my hypotheses the data that I have gathered disproves it. Breakdown of foreign visitors to Dubai by nationality in 2002 [image] Figure 3 There are three possible reasons of why my hypothesis is incorrect: 4. I introduced bias into my data 5. Figure is not a reliable source 6. Less Europeans visited Dubai after 2002 and more Asians visited Dubai. Hypothesis 2: Most tourists come to Dubai for the beach and weather This hypothesis is less straightforward than the first hypothesis. This is because; there are two factors in the hypothesis that I have to test. Also, there are so many other factors that tourists can come to Dubai for. This makes the probability of my hypothesis being true, is lower. Therefore, this is the section where I did the most data gathering. In all my graphs my hypothesis has been easily proved to be correct, however, there is an exception: The radial graph that shows the different reasons of tourists coming to Dubai. Radial diagram showing the different reasons for tourists coming to Dubai [image]In the radial graph we can see that shopping is the major reason of why tourists came to Dubai. The shopping factor is in fact to be ignored because it is full of bias. I have surveyed my questionnaires in shopping malls which of course introduces bias. If I ignore Shopping, then I see that beach and creek and weather are the next obvious trends. When it is winter in other countries, the tourists come to Dubai to appreciate the good weather. If the weather is good then it is ideal to go to the beach because in other continents such as Europe or America people can only go to the beach in summer because that is the only time the weather is good enough. Also, in other countries, beaches are crowded during summer and they can also be dirty, which is not the case in Dubai. Figure 4 In figure 5 we can see that 44% of the tourists come to Dubai for the weather and beach and it is the largest category. The data for 2002 seems to be similar to the data that I have gathered in figure 26. Breakdown of Dubai visitors by purpose of visit (2002) Beach and Weather 44% Business 39% Figure 5 Bar chart showing the months that the tourists would have preferred to come to Dubai I found this pattern between the above graph which shows the months preferred by tourists and the climate graph. The higher the temperature the less tourist response. This does not mean that low temperatures in Dubai are cold; the lowest temperature is 16 degrees Celsius. Hypothesis 3: The further the distance the tourists come from the longer they stay in Dubai This hypothesis is straight forward, however, it is hard to gather all the useful data together. I have made a first attempt in a divided bar chart which showed well the length of stay but not the distance. Therefore, I used my imagination and extended this into a map which then illustrated all the information needed and I was then able to prove my hypothesis correct to a high extent. Tourists that come from far countries (e.g. American countries) would stay in the U.A.E as long as possible. The airplane tickets to get to the U.A.E are expensive, especially during the rush season. Usually only rich tourists would afford to come to the U.A.E for a short period of time. Continent Average flight price South America aed 4,500 North America aed 4,100 Far East aed 3,170 Australia aed 3,000 Europe aed 2,700 Africa aed 1,400 Middle East aed 1,000 Figure 7 The most expensive flights would be from America and Far East Asia. We can assume from the high prices that most tourists from these continents would stay longer in Dubai than tourists from closer areas. I used the data in figure 7 into my map and it helped me a lot to prove my hypothesis. I have chosen to make the diagram in figure 31 to gather a lot of information together for me to be able to analyze the data more deeply. In the diagram I have combined the data from figure 7 and figure 30. Then I got some detailed statistics which then allowed me to prove my hypothesis correct to a certain extent. Table showing Proved or Disproved hypothesis Hypothesis Proved/Disproved Most tourists come from Europe Disproved Most tourists come to Dubai for the beach and weather Proved The further the distance the tourists come from the longer they stay in Dubai Proved Limitations and Problems ? Not able to identify if a person is a tourist and this affects my rule of systematic sampling ? Tourists that do not know English very well may give wrong information ? 50 tourists is not enough, I should have done 60 or more. ? I could not carry out my survey where ever I wanted because I had to authorization and you rarely get it. ? In City Center it is busy and people move around quickly. It was hard to find tourists and if we do they don?t have time to answer. ? Hard to get detailed statistics about tourism in Dubai on the internet. ? Conducting my survey in malls introduces bias. Improvements ? Collect more primary data and collect equal amount of data for each hypothesis. ? Could have conducted my primary data collection more frequently to get balanced data e.g. it could be exceptionally hot just on the day you do the survey ? Found more trends, but for that I needed more primary and secondary data Skills acquired from this study

Tourism in Dubai 6.8 of 10 on the basis of 1226 Review.