World Studies Definitions

World Studies Definitions
1. Edison, Thomas Alva ? 1847-1931, American inventor, b. Milan, Ohio. A genius in the practical application of scientific principles, Edison was one of the greatest and most productive inventors of his time, but his formal schooling was limited to three months in Port Huron, Mich., in 1854. For several years he was a newsboy on the Grand Trunk RR, and it was during this period that he began to suffer from deafness, which was to increase throughout his life. He later worked as a telegraph operator in various cities. Edison?s first inventions were the transmitter and receiver for the automatic telegraph.
2. Bell, Alexander Graham ? 1847-1922, American scientist, inventor of the telephone, b. Edinburgh, Scotland, educated at the Univ. of Edinburgh and University College, London; son of Alexander Melville Bell. He worked in London with his father, whose system of visible speech he used in teaching the deaf to talk. In 1870 he went to Canada, and in 1871 he lectured, chiefly to teachers of the deaf, in Boston and other cities. During the next few years he conducted his own school of vocal physiology in Boston, lectured at Boston Univ., and worked on his inventions. His teaching methods were of lasting value in the improvement of education for the deaf.

3. Carnegie, Andrew ? 1835-1919, American industrialist and philanthropist, b. Dunfermline, Scotland. His father, a weaver, found it increasingly difficult to get work in Scottish factories. In 1848 he brought his family to Allegheny (now Pittsburgh), Pa. Andrew first worked in a cotton mill as a bobbin boy, then advanced himself as a telegrapher, and became (1859) a superintendent for the Pennsylvania RR. He resigned (1865) his railroad position to give personal attention to the investments he had made (1864) in iron manufactures.
4. John Davison Rockefeller ? 1874-1960, b. Cleveland, grad. Brown, 1897 took over active management of his father?s interests in 1911 and engaged in numerous philanthropies. Riverside Church in New York City was built through his gifts. He also gave vast sums for religious projects, for scientific investigation, and for the restoration of historic monuments. Among his most notable philanthropies were the restoration of colonial Williamsburg, Va., and the donation of the site for the United Nations headquarters in New York City. He founded (1931) and helped plan Rockefeller Center in New York City, which the Rockefeller interests, completed in 1939.

5. Gompers, Samuel ? 1850-1924, American labor leader, b. London. He emigrated to the United States with his parents in 1863. He worked as a cigar maker and in 1864 joined the local union, serving as its president from 1874 to 1881, when he helped to found the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions. It was reorganized in 1886 and became the American Federation of Labor, of which Gompers was first president and of which he remained president, except for the year 1895, until his death.

6. American Federation of Labor ? In 1881 representatives of workers? organizations, meeting in Pittsburgh, formed the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions in the United States and Canada. In 1886 at another conference in Columbus, Ohio, this group reorganized as the American Federation of Labor. Opposed to the socialistic and political ideals of the Knights of Labor, the afl was, instead, a decentralized organization recognizing the autonomy of each of its member national craft unions.

7. Monopoly ? market condition in which there is only one seller of a certain commodity; by virtue of the long-run control over supply, such a seller is able to exert nearly total control over prices. In a pure monopoly, the single seller will usually restrict supply to that point on the supply-demand schedule that will maximize profit. In modern times, the accelerated production and competition brought about by the Industrial Revolution led to the formation of monopoly and oligopoly.

8. Ellis Island ? in Upper New York Bay, SW of Manhattan island. Government-controlled since 1808, it was long the site of an arsenal and a fort, but most famously served (1892-1954) as the chief immigration station of the United States. It is estimated that 40% of all Americans had an ancestor arrive at Ellis Island. Now part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument, the island was opened to tourists in 1976.

9. Melting Pot ? an environment in which many ideas and races are socially assimilated.

10. Hayes, Rutherford B. ? 1822-93, 19th President of the United States (1877-81), b. Delaware, Ohio, grad. Kenyon College, 1843, and Harvard law school, 1845. He became a moderately successful lawyer in Cincinnati and was made (1858) city solicitor. In the Civil War he began as a major of volunteers, took part in some 50 engagements, was several times wounded, and rose in rank to be (1865) major general of volunteers. Elected to Congress while still in the field, he served (1865-67) as a regular Republican, quietly supporting the radical Reconstruction program. He was three times (1867, 1869, 1875) elected governor of Ohio and was chosen as the Republican candidate for President in 1876.

11. Garfield, James A.- 1831-81, 20th President of the United States (Mar.-Sept., 1881). Born on a frontier farm in Cuyahoga co., Ohio, he spent his early years in poverty. As a youth he worked as farmer, carpenter, and canal boatman. After graduation (1856) from Williams College, he became a teacher of ancient languages and literature at the Western Reserve Eclectic Institute at Hiram, Ohio, and later (1857-61) was its principal. He was also a lay preacher of the Disciples of Christ, was admitted (1859) to the bar, and was elected an antislavery state senator.

12. Orville and Wilbur Wright ? American airplane inventors and aviation pioneers. Orville Wright 1871- 1948, was born in Dayton, Ohio, and Wilbur Wright, 1867-1912, near New Castle, Ind. Their interest in aviation was aroused in the 1890s by the German engineer Otto Lilienthal ?s glider flights. Both excellent mechanics, the Wrights used the facilities of the bicycle repair shop and factory which they operated (1892-1904) at Dayton for the construction of their early aircraft.

13. Eastman, George ? 1854-1932, American inventor, industrialist, and philanthropist, b. Waterville, N.Y. By mass production of his photographic inventions, Eastman enormously stimulated the development of photography as a popular hobby. He invented a dry-plate process and established (1880) a factory at Rochester, N.Y., for making the plates; he devised a roll film and the Kodak camera (1888) to use it, as well as a process for color photography (1928). The Eastman Kodak Company, founded in 1892, was one of the first firms in America to establish a plant for large-scale production of a standardized product and to maintain a fine chemical laboratory; its progressive welfare program included a profit-sharing plan.

14. Washington, Booker T. ? 1856-1915, American educator, b. Franklin co. Va. His mother was a mulatto slave on a plantation, his father a white man. After the Civil War, he worked in salt furnaces and coal-mines in Malden, W.Va., and attended school part time, until he was able to enter the Hampton Institute. A friend of the principal paid his tuition, and he worked as a janitor to earn his room and board. After three years (1872-75) at Hampton he taught at a school for African-American children in Malden, then studied at Wayland Seminary, Washington, D.C.

15. Grandfather Clause ? provision in constitutions (adopted 1895-1910) of seven post-Reconstruction Southern states that exempted those persons who had been eligible to vote on Jan. 1, 1867, and their descendants from rigid economic and literacy requirements for voting. Since African Americans had not yet been enfranchised on that date, the provision effectively barred them from the polls while granting voting rights to poor and illiterate whites.

16. Segregation ? The policy or practice of separating people of different races, classes, or ethnic groups, as in schools, housing, and public or commercial facilities, especially as a form of discrimination.

17. Plessy vs. Ferguson ? case decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1896. The court upheld an 1890 Louisiana statute mandating racially segregated but equal railroad carriages, ruling that the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth amendment to the U.S. Constitution dealt with political and not social equality.

18. Muckraker ? name applied to American journalists, novelists, and critics who in the first decade of the 20th cent. attempted to expose the abuses of business and the corruption in politics. The term derives from the word muckrake used by President Theodore Roosevelt in a speech in 1906, in which he agreed with many of the charges of the muckrakers but asserted that some of their methods were sensational and irresponsible. He compared them to a character from Bunyan?s Pilgrim?s Progress who could look no way but downward with a muckrake in his hands and was interested only in raking the filth.

19. 17th Amendment ? Clause 1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.
Clause 2. When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of each State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies. Provided That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.
Clause 3. This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.

20. Suffrage ? The history of the right to vote in the United States suggests an inevitable progress toward democracy. In colonial America property qualifications limited the right to vote, whereas suffrage today is open to all citizens at the age of eighteen. The colonists regarded the suffrage as a privilege; Americans today consider it a right. But this interpretation obscures long periods in which various groups?women black men, and paupers?were disfranchised.

21. Roosevelt, Theodore ? With the assassination of President McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt, not quite 43, became the youngest President in the Nation?s history. He brought new excitement and power to the Presidency, as he vigorously led Congress and the American public toward progressive reforms and a strong foreign policy. Order: 26th President Vice President: Charles Warren Fairbanks Term of office: September 14, 1901 ? March 3, 1909 Preceded by: William McKinley Succeeded by: William Howard Taft Date of birth: October 27, 1858 Place of birth: New York City Date of death: January 6, 1919 Place of death: Oyster Bay, New York First Lady: Edith Roosevelt Political party: Republican party.

22. Square Deal- "The principles for which we stand are the principles of fair play and a square deal for every man and every woman in the United States." (New York City, 1912)

23. Sinclair, Upton- 1878-1968, American novelist and socialist, b. Baltimore, grad. College of the City of New York, 1897. He was one of the muckrakers, and an interest in social and industrial reform underlies most of his writing. The Jungle (1906), a brutally graphic novel of the Chicago stockyards, aroused great public indignation and led to reform of federal food inspection laws.

24. The Jungle- Perhaps best known for its effect on the United States meat packing industry (its exposé of conditions in meat packing plants led to legislation regulating the industry), it in fact builds a case for socialism. (1906)

25. Pure Food + Drug Act- The muckrakers had successfully heightened public awareness of safety issues stemming from careless food preparation procedures and the increasing incidence of drug addiction from patent medicines, both accidental and conscious. Scientific support came from Dr. Harvey W. Wiley, the Department of Agriculture?s chief chemist, who published his findings on the widespread use of harmful preservatives in the meatpacking industry. The experience of American soldiers with so-called ?embalmed beef? during the Spanish-American War added impetus to the movement. Public pressure forced a reluctant Congress to consider a Pure Food and Drug bill in 1906.

26. naacp- (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) organization composed mainly of American blacks, but with many white members, whose goal is the end of racial discrimination and segregation. The association was formed as the direct result of the lynching (1908) of two blacks in Springfield, Ill.

27. Bull Moose Party- formally Progressive Party U.S. dissident political faction that nominated former president /needmoreTheodore Roosevelt for the presidency in 1912; the formal name and general objectives of the party were revived 12 years later. Opposing the entrenched conservatism of the regular Republican Party, which was controlled by Pres. William Howard Taft, a National Republican Progressive League was organized.

28. 19th Amendment- Passed by Congress June 4, 1919. Ratified August 18, 1920. Section 1: The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Section 2: Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

29.Imperialism- a policy of extending the control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires, either through direct territorial or through indirect methods of exerting control on the politics and/or economy of other countries. The term is used by some to describe the policy of a country in maintaining colonies and dominance over distant lands, regardless of whether the country calls itself an empire.

30. Pearl Harbor- On Dec. 7, 1941, while negotiations were going on with Japanese representatives in Washington, Japanese carrier-based planes swept in without warning over Oahu and attacked the bulk of the U.S. Pacific fleet, moored in Pearl Harbor. Nineteen naval vessels, including eight battleships, were sunk or severely damaged; 188 U.S. aircraft were destroyed. Military casualties were 2,280 killed and 1,109 wounded; 68 civilians also died. On Dec. 8, the United States declared war on Japan.

31. Rough Riders- popular name for the 1st Regiment of U.S. Cavalry Volunteers, organized largely by Theodore Roosevelt in the Spanish-American War (1898). Its members were mostly ranchers and cowboys from the West, with a sprinkling of adventurous blue bloods from the eastern universities.

32. Panama Canal- A ship canal, about 82 km (51 mi.) long, crossing the Isthmus of Panama in the Canal Zone and connecting the Caribbean Sea with the Pacific Ocean. The French began it in 1881, but the project was abandoned in 1889. The United States gained construction rights after Panama declared its independence in 1903, and the canal was opened to traffic on August 15, 1914. A 1977 treaty stipulated that the Panamanians gained full rights of sovereignty over the canal on December 31, 1999.

33. Nationalism- political or social philosophy in which the welfare of the nation-state as an entity is considered paramount. Nationalism is basically a collective state of mind or consciousness in which people believe their primary duty and loyalty is to the nation-state. Often nationalism implies national superiority and glorifies various national virtues. Thus love of nation may be overemphasized; concern with national self-interest to the exclusion of the rights of other nations may lead to international conflict.

34. Trench Warfare- Although trenches were used in ancient and medieval warfare, in the American Civil War, and in the Russo-Japanese War (1904?5), they did not become important until World War I. The introduction of rapid-firing small arms and artillery made the infantry charges of earlier wars virtually impossible, and the war became immobile, with the contenders digging thousands of miles of opposing trenches fronted by barbed wire.

35. Lusitania- Roman province in the Iberian Peninsula. As constituted (c.A.D. 5) by Augustus it included all of modern central Portugal as well as much of W Spain. The province took its name from the Lusitani, a group of warlike tribes who, despite defeats, resisted Roman domination until their great leader, Viriatus, was killed (139 B.C.) by treachery. In the 1st cent. B.C. they joined in supporting Sertorius, who set up an independent state in Spain.

36. Selective Service Act- The Selective Service Act established the first peacetime conscription in United States history. The Act passed the U.S. Congress on May 18, 1917 and gave the President the power to draft soldiers. The Selective Service Act required those men between the ages 21 and 30 register with local draft boards. (The age range was later changed to 18-45.)

36. 14 Point Plan- formulation of a peace program, presented at the end of World War I by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson in an address before both houses of Congress on Jan. 8, 1918. The message, though intensely idealistic in tone and primarily a peace program, had certain very practical uses as an instrument for propaganda. It was intended to reach the people and the liberal leaders of the Central Powers as a seductive appeal for peace, in which purpose it was successful.

37. Warren G. Harding- 1865?1923, 29th President of the United States (1921?23), b. Blooming Grove (now Corsica), Ohio. After study (1879?82) at Ohio Central College, he moved with his family to Marion, Ohio, where he devoted himself to journalism. He bought the Marion Star, built up the newspaper, and became a member of the small group that dominated local affairs. He entered Ohio Republican politics and was (1899?1903) a member of the state legislature. Harding served as lieutenant governor (1904?5), but he was defeated (1910) as Republican candidate for governor.

38. Capitalism- An economic system in which the means of production and distribution are privately or corporately owned and development is proportionate to the accumulation and reinvestment of profits gained in a free market.

39. Prohibition- The outlawing of alcoholic beverages nationwide from 1920 to 1933, under an amendment to the Constitution. The amendment, enforced by the Volstead Act, was repealed by another amendment to the Constitution in 1933.

40. Charles A. Lindbergh- American aviator who made the first solo transatlantic flight (May 20?21, 1927). His books include we (1936) and an autobiography, The Spirit of St. Louis (1953).

41. Ernest Hemingway- American writer. A World War I ambulance driver, journalist, and expatriate in Paris during the 1920s, he wrote short stories and novels, such as The Sun Also Rises (1926) and The Old Man and the Sea (1952), that concern courageous, lonely characters and are marked by his terse literary style. He won the 1954 Nobel Prize for literature.

42. Louis Armstrong- American jazz trumpeter. A virtuoso musician and popular, gravelly voiced singer, he greatly influenced the development of jazz.

43. Assembly line- manufacturing technique in which a product is carried by some form of mechanized conveyor among stations at which the various operations necessary to its assembly are performed. It is used to assemble quickly large numbers of a uniform product. Henry Ford is often credited with establishing the first assembly line for his Model T. So long as an assembly line?s output is high, the cost per unit is relatively low.

44. Dow Jones Industrial Average- An index of the relative price movement of the shares of thirty major industrial companies, most of which are traded on the New York Stock Exchange. Changes in the average (noted as ?rises? and ?falls?) give investors a general picture of the state of the market. Often referred to as ?the Dow.?

45.Black Tuesday- October 29th, 1929 when the djia fell 12% ? one of the largest one-day drops in stock market history. More than 16 million shares were traded in a panic selloff. By many, Black Tuesday is considered the end of the roaring 20?s and the start of the Great Depression.

46. Shanty Town- are units of irregular low-cost and self-constructed housing built on terrain seized and occupied illegally ? usually on lands belonging to third parties, most often located in the urban periphery of the cities. These dwellings are often assembled in a patchwork fashion from pieces of plywood, corrugated metal, sheets of plastic, and any other material that will provide cover. During the Great Depression of the 1930?s (caused by the stock market crash of 1929), shantytowns appeared in cities across the United States because of the massive unemployment.

47. Dust Bowl- the name given to areas of the U.S. prairie states that suffered ecological devastation in the 1930s and then to a lesser extent in the mid-1950s. The problem began during World War I, when the high price of wheat and the needs of Allied troops encouraged farmers to grow more wheat by plowing and seeding areas in prairie states, such as Kansas, Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico, which were formerly used only for grazing.

48. Franklin D. Roosevelt- The 32nd President of the United States (1933?1945). Governor of New York (1929?1932), he ran for President with the promise of a New Deal for the American people. Relief programs, measures to increase employment and assist industrial and agricultural recovery from the Depression, and World War II, marked his administration. He was the only U.S. President to be reelected three times (1936, 1940, and 1944). He died in office.

49. New Deal- in U.S. history, term for the domestic reform program of the administration of Franklin Delano Roosevelt; it was first used by Roosevelt in his speech accepting the Democratic party nomination for President in 1932. The New Deal is generally considered to have consisted of two phases.

50. Civilian Conservation Corps- (ccc) established in 1933 by the U.S. Congress as a measure of the New Deal program. The ccc provided work and vocational training for unemployed single young men through conserving and developing the country?s natural resources. At its peak in 1935, the organization had more than 500,000 members in over 2,600 camps.

51. Work Progress Administration- (wpa), former U.S. government agency, established in 1935 by executive order of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt as the Works Progress Administration; it was renamed the Work Projects Administration in 1939, when it was made part of the Federal Works Agency. Created when unemployment was widespread, the WPA?headed by Harry L. Hopkins until 1938?was designed to increase the purchasing power of persons on relief by employing them on useful projects.

52. Wagner Act- The National Labor Relations Act of 1935 is informally known as the Wagner Act, for its sponsor, Senator Robert Wagner of New York. It created the National Labor Relations Board (nlrb) and established workers? right to collective bargaining. (The right had been recognized in the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933, but that act had been declared unconstitutional.)

53. Social Security Act- (1935) established a permanent national old-age pension system through employer and employee contributions; later it was extended to include dependents, the disabled, and other groups. Responding to the economic impact of the Great Depression, 5,000,000 elderly people in the early 1930s joined nationwide Townsend clubs, promoted by Francis E. Townsend to support his program demanding a $200 monthly pension for everyone over the age of 60. In 1934 President Franklin D. Roosevelt set up a committee on economic security to consider the matter; after studying its recommendations, Congress in 1935 enacted the Social Security Act, providing old-age benefits to be financed by a payroll tax on employers and employees.

54. Frances Perkins- 1882?1965, U.S. Secretary of Labor (1933?45), b. Boston. She worked at Hull House, was executive secretary of the New York Consumers? League (1910?12) and of the New York Committee on Safety (1912?17), and directed (1912?13) investigations for the New York state factory commission. She became an authority on industrial hazards and hygiene and began lobbying in Albany for more comprehensive factory laws and for maximum-hour laws for women.

55. Gone With the Wind- Disappeared, gone forever, as in With these unforeseen expenses, our profits are gone with the wind. This phrase became famous as the title of Margaret Mitchell?s 1936 novel, which alludes to the Civil War?s causing the disappearance of a Southern way of life. It mainly serves as an intensifier of gone.

56. The Grapes of Wrath- (1939) A novel by John Steinbeck about the hardships of an American farm family in the Dust Bowl during the Great Depression. Forced off the land, they travel to California to earn a living harvesting fruit.

57. Joseph Stalin- Soviet politician, The successor of Lenin, he was general secretary of the Communist Party (1922?1953) and premier (1941?1953) of the ussr. His rule was marked by the exile of Trotsky (1929), a purge of the government and military, the forced collectivization of agriculture, a policy of industrialization, and a victorious but devastating role for the Soviets in World War II.

58. Benito Mussolini- Italian Fascist dictator and prime minister (1922?1943) who conducted an expansionist foreign policy, formalized an alliance with Germany (1939), and brought Italy into World War II (1940). Dismissed by Victor Emmanuel iii (1943), he led a puppet Nazi government in northern Italy until 1945, when he was assassinated.

59. Adolf Hitler- Austrian-born founder of the German Nazi Party and chancellor of the Third Reich (1933?1945). His fascist philosophy, embodied in Mein Kampf (1925?1927), attracted widespread support, and after 1934 he ruled as an absolute dictator. Hitler?s pursuit of aggressive nationalist policies resulted in the invasion of Poland (1939) and the subsequent outbreak of World War II. His regime was infamous for the extermination of millions of people, especially European Jews. He committed suicide when the collapse of the Third Reich was imminent (1945).

60. Winston Churchill- 1871?1947an American novelist, b. St. Louis, grad. Annapolis, 1894. He wrote several popular historical novels including Richard Carvel (1899), The Crisis (1901), and The Crossing (1904). His later books, such as Coniston (1906), The Inside of the Cup (1913), and The Dwelling-Place of Light (1917), reflected his interest in social, religious, and political problems.

61. Blitzkrieg- A form of warfare used by German forces in World War II. In a blitzkrieg, troops in vehicles, such as tanks, made quick surprise strikes with support from airplanes. These tactics resulted in the swift German conquest of France in 1940.

62. Holocaust- The killing of some six million Jews by the Nazis during World War II. To the Nazis, the Holocaust was the ?Final Solution? to the ?Jewish problem,? and would help them establish a pure German master race. Much of the killing took place in concentration camps, such as Auschwitz and Dachau.

63. Axis Powers- The Axis Powers is a term for participants in World War II opposed the Allies. The three major Axis powers, Germany, Italy, and Japan, referred to themselves as the Rome?Berlin?Tokyo axis. The Axis powers were ultimately defeated in the end of World War II.

64. Hideki Tojo- 1884?1948 an Japanese general and statesman. He became prime minister after he forced Konoye?s resignation in Oct., 1941. His accession marked the final triumph of the military faction that advocated war with the United States and Great Britain. As the most powerful leader in the government during World War II, he approved the attack on Pearl Harbor and pushed the Japanese offensive in China, SE Asia, and the Pacific.

65. George Marshall- American soldiers, diplomat, and politician. As U.S. secretary of state (1947?1949) he organized the European Recovery Program, often called the Marshall Plan, for which he received the 1953 Nobel Peace Prize.

66. Manhattan Project- The code-name for the effort to develop atomic bombs for the United States during World War II. The first controlled nuclear reaction took place in Chicago in 1942, and by 1945, bombs had been manufactured that used this chain reaction to produce great explosive force. The project was carried out in enormous secrecy. After a test explosion in July 1945, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

67. Dwight D. Eisenhower- American general and the 34th President of the United States (1953?1961). As supreme commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force (1943?1945) he launched the invasion of Normandy (June 6, 1944) and oversaw the final defeat of Germany (1945). An end to the Korean War (1953) marked his presidency, domestic racial problems, cold war with the Soviet Union, and a break in diplomatic relations with Cuba (1961).

68. D-day- The code name for the first day of a military attack, especially the American and British invasion of German-occupied France during World War II on June 6, 1944 (see invasion of Normandy). This marked the beginning of the victory of the Allies in Europe. Germany surrendered less than a year later.

69. George Patton- 1885?1945 an American general, b. San Gabriel, Calif. A graduate of West Point (1909), he served in World War I and was wounded while commanding a tank brigade in France. Subsequently he served in the cavalry and the tank corps. In World War II he commanded (1942?43) a corps in North Africa and the 7th Army in Sicily.

70. V-E day- The day of victory in Europe for the Allies in World War II; May 8, 1945, the day of the formal surrender of the German armies.

71. Harry S. Truman- The 33rd President of the United States (1945?1953). He authorized the use of the atomic bomb against Japan (1945), implemented the Marshall Plan (1948), initiated the establishment of nato (1949), and ordered U.S. involvement in the Korean War (1950?1953).

72. Douglas Macarthur- American general who served as U.S. chief of staff (1930?1935) and commanded Allied forces in the South Pacific during World War II. After losing the Philippines to the Japanese (1942), he regained the islands (1944) and accepted the surrender of Japan (1945). He commanded the United Nations forces in Korea (1950?1951) until a conflict in strategies led to his dismissal by President Harry S. Truman. His father, Arthur MacArthur (1845?1912), commanded American troops in the Spanish-American War and thwarted Emilio Aguinaldo?s insurgence in the Philippines (1899).

73. Kamikaze- the typhoon that destroyed Kublai Khan?s fleet, foiling his invasion of Japan in 1281. In World War II the term was used for a Japanese suicide air force composed of fliers who crashed their bomb-laden planes into their targets, usually ships. The kamikaze was first used extensively at Leyte Gulf and was especially active at Okinawa.

74. Hiroshima- A city of southwest Honshu, Japan, on the Inland Sea west of Osaka. Founded in the 16th century, it was destroyed in World War II by the first atomic bomb used in warfare (August 6, 1945). The rebuilt city is an important commercial and industrial center. Population: 1,140,000.

75. Nagasaki- A city of western Kyushu, Japan, on Nagasaki Bay, an inlet of the East China Sea. The first Japanese port to be opened to foreign trade in the 16th century, Nagasaki was devastated by the second atomic bomb used in World War II (August 9, 1945). Population: 412,000.

76. G.I Bill of Rights- (1944), provided veterans with loans, educational subsidies, and other benefits. Designed to ease military personnel back into civilian life and at the same time to bolster the postwar economy, the legislation was broadly supported. Through the Veterans Administration (VA), veterans received low-interest mortgage and small-business loans, job training, hiring privileges, and tuition and other incentives to continue their education in school or college.

77. United Nations- (UN), international organization established immediately after World War II. It replaced the League of Nations. In 1945, when the UN was founded, there were 51 members; 191 nations are now members of the organization.

78. Cold War- term used to describe the shifting struggle for power and prestige between the Western powers and the Communist bloc from the end of World War II until 1989. Of worldwide proportions, the conflict was tacit in the ideological differences between communism and capitalist democracy.

79. Truman Doctrine- The Truman Doctrine stated that the United States would support "free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures."U.S. President Harry S. Truman made the proclamation in an address to US Congress on March 12, 1947 amid the crisis of the Greek Civil War (1946-1949). The doctrine was specifically aimed at assisting governments resisting communism. Truman insisted that if Greece and Turkey did not receive the aid that they needed, they would inevitably fall to communism with the result being a domino effect of acceptance of communism throughout the region.

80. Marshall Plan- A program by which the United States gave large amounts of economic aid to European countries to help them rebuild after the devastation of World War II. It was proposed by the United States secretary of state, General George C. Marshall.

81. North Atlantic Treaty Org.- (nato), established under the North Atlantic Treaty (Apr. 4, 1949) by Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and the United States. Greece and Turkey entered the alliance in 1952, West Germany (now Germany) entered in 1955, and Spain joined in 1982. In 1999 the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland joined, and Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia joined five years later, bringing the membership to 26. nato maintains headquarters in Brussels, Belgium. The treaty, one of the major Western countermeasures against the threat of aggression by the Soviet Union during the cold war, was aimed at safeguarding the freedom of the North Atlantic community. Considering an armed attack on any member an attack against all, the treaty provided for collective self-defense in accordance with Article 51 of the United Nations Charter.

82. 38th Parallel- The 38th parallel north is a line latitude that cuts across Asia and North America. It has been especially important in the recent history of Korea. After the surrender of Japan in 1945, the parallel was established as the boundary between the Soviet (north) and American (south) occupation zones in Korea. The parallel divided the peninsula roughly in the middle .

83. cia- independent executive bureau of the U.S. government established by the National Security Act of 1947, replacing the wartime Office of Strategic Services (1942?45), the first U.S. espionage and covert operations agency. While the CIA?s covert operations receive the most attention, its major responsibility is to gather intelligence, in which it uses not only covert agents but such technological resources as satellite photos and intercepted telecommunications transmissions.

84. Sputnik I- Sputnik 1 was the first artificial satellite to be launched into orbit, on October 4, 1957. The satellite had a mass of about 83 kg (184 pounds). It had two radio transmitters (20 and 40 MHz) and is believed to have orbited Earth at a height of about 250 km (150 miles). Analysis of the radio signals was used to gather information about the electron density of the ionosphere. Sputnik was the first of several satellites in the Soviet Union?s Sputnik program, the majority of them successful.

85. John F. Kennedy- The 35th President of the United States (1961?1963). A U.S. representative (1947?1953) and senator (1953?1960) from Massachusetts, he became the youngest man elected to the presidency (1960). Kennedy approved the failed invasion of the Bay of Pigs (1961) and forced Khrushchev to remove Soviet missiles from Cuba (1962). He also established the Peace Corps (1961) and advocated civil rights reform. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas, on November 22, 1963.

86. Berlin Wall- 1961?89, a barrier first erected in Aug., 1961, by the East German government along the border between East and West Berlin, and later extended along the entire border between East Germany and West Germany. It was built to halt large numbers of defections and to prevent E. Berliners commuting to the West. Erected at a time of growing tension between East and West, the barbed wire was eventually replaced by concrete topped with wire.

87. Peace Corps.- A federal government organization, set up in 1961, that trains and sends American volunteers abroad to work with people of developing countries on projects for technological, agricultural, and educational improvement.

88. Warren Commission- popular name given to the U.S. Commission to Report upon the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy established (Nov. 29, 1963) by executive order of President Lyndon B. Johnson. The commission, which was given unrestricted investigating powers, was directed to evaluate all the evidence and present a complete report of the event to the American people. The members of the commission were Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the United States; U.S. Senators Richard B. Russell (Democrat from Georgia) and John Sherman Cooper (Republican from Kentucky); U.S.

89. Great Society- The name President Lyndon Johnson gave to his aims in domestic policy. The programs of the Great Society had several goals, including clean air and water, expanded educational opportunities, and the lessening of poverty and disease in the United States.

90. Medicare- A federal program providing medical care for the elderly. Established by a health insurance bill in 1965, as part of President Lyndon Johnson?s Great Society, the Medicare program made a significant step for social welfare legislation and helped establish the growing population of the elderly as a pressure group.

91. Medicaid- A program in the United States, jointly funded by the states and the federal government, that reimburses hospitals and physicians for providing care to qualifying people who cannot finance their own medical expenses.

92. Black Power- A movement among Black Americans emphasizing racial pride and social equality through the creation of Black political and cultural institutions: ?Black Power . . . calls for black people to consolidate behind their own, so that they can bargain from a position of strength?

93. Thurgood Marshall- American jurist who served as an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court from 1967 to 1991. As a lawyer for the naacp Marshall argued 32 cases before the Supreme Court, winning 29 of them, including Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954), which brought about the end of legal segregation in public schools.

94. Brown VS Board of Education- A case regarding school desegregation, decided by the Supreme Court in 1954. The Court ruled that segregation in public schools is prohibited by the Constitution. The decision ruled out ?separate but equal? educational systems for blacks and whites, which many localities said they were providing. The Court departed from tradition by using arguments from sociology to show that separate educational systems were unequal by their very nature

95. Rosa Parks- American civil rights leader. Her refusal to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery, Alabama, resulted in a citywide boycott of the bus company and stirred the civil rights movement across the nation.

96. Martin Luther King JR..- American cleric whose eloquence and commitment to nonviolent tactics formed the foundation of the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s. Among the many peaceful demonstrations he led was the 1963 March on Washington, at which he delivered his ?I have a dream? speech. He won the 1964 Nobel Peace Prize, four years before he was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.

97. Civil Rights Acts of 1964- A federal law that authorized federal action against segregation in public accommodations, public facilities, and employment. The law was passed during a period of great strength for the civil rights movement, and President Lyndon Johnson persuaded many reluctant members of Congress to support the law.

98. Discrimination- unfair treatment of a person or group on the basis of prejudice. The cognitive process whereby two or more stimuli are distinguished.

99. Tonkin Gulf Resolution- in U.S. history, Congressional resolution passed in 1964 that authorized military action in Southeast Asia. On Aug. 4, 1964, North Vietnamese torpedo boats in the Gulf of Tonkin were alleged to have attacked without provocation U.S. destroyers that were reporting intelligence information to South Vietnam. President Lyndon B. Johnson and his advisers decided upon immediate air attacks on North Vietnam in retaliation; he also asked Congress for a mandate for future military action.

100. William Westmoreland- 1914?, U.S. general, b. Spartanburg co., S.C. He graduated from West Point in 1936 and fought with distinction in North Africa and Europe during World War II and later (1952?53) in Korea. After serving (1960?64) as superintendent of West Point, Westmoreland attained (1964) the rank of general and commanded (1964?68) U.S. military forces in Vietnam. He then assumed the position of army chief of staff, which he held until his retirement in 1972. In 1974 he was defeated in the Republican primary election for governor of South Carolina.

101. Credibility Gap- a satirical comedy team comprising Harry Shearer, Richard Beebe, David L. Lander and Michael McKean. They emerged in the late 1960s doing comedic commentary on the news for the Los Angeles AM rock radio station krla, and proceeded to develop more elaborate and ambitious satirical routines on the "underground" FM station kppc, Pasadena, California.

102. Tet Offensive- A series of major attacks by communist forces in the Vietnam War. Early in 1968, Vietnamese communist troops seized and briefly held some major cities at the time of the lunar New Year, or Tet. The Tet offensive, a turning point in the war, damaged the hopes of United States officials that the combined forces of the United States and South Vietnam could win.

103. Richard Nixon- The 37th President of the United States (1969?1974). Vice President (1953?1961) under Dwight D. Eisenhower, he lost the 1960 presidential election to John F. Kennedy. Elected President in 1968, he visited China (1972) and established détente with the ussr. Although he increased U.S. military involvement in Southeast Asia, he was also responsible for the eventual withdrawal of U.S. troops. When Congress recommended three articles of impeachment for Nixon?s involvement in the Watergate scandal, he resigned from office (August 9, 1974).

104. My Lai Massacre- A mass killing of helpless inhabitants of a village in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War, carried out in 1968 by United States troops under the command of Lieutenant William Calley. Calley was court-martialed and sentenced to life imprisonment, but he only served a few years before parole. The massacre, horrible in itself, became a symbol for those opposed to the war in Vietnam.

105.Kent State University- The Kent State shootings occurred at Kent State University in the city of Kent, Ohio, and involved the shooting of students by the National Guard on May 4, 1970. Over the course of four days, Kent State students protested against an American invasion of Cambodia which President Richard Nixon launched on April 25 and which Nixon announced in a television address on April 30. There were significant national consequences: hundreds of colleges closed throughout the U.S., and the event further divided the nation along political lines.

106. Betty Friedman- An author and political activist of the twentieth century, who has worked for the extension of women?s rights. In 1963, Friedan published The Feminine Mystique, a book that proved fundamental to the women?s movement of the 1960s and beyond. She was a founder of the National Organization for Women.

107. Gloria Steinem- (1934- ), feminist editor, writer, and speaker. A popular media figure, a writer, and an editor of Ms. magazine from 1972 to 1987. Steinem has been active politically since 1969 as an advocate for women in their struggle for equality and self-determination, as well as for those excluded from full participation in American society because of race or poverty.

108. Equal Rights- A twice-proposed but never ratified amendment to the Constitution that would prohibit denial or abridgement of rights on the basis of sex. First proposed in 1923, the amendment was passed by Congress in 1972 but failed ratification by the requisite number of states. It was a major rallying point of the women?s movement.

109. Counter Culture- This movement was a reaction against the conservative social norms of the 1950s, the political conservatives (and perceived social repression) of the Cold War period, and the US government?s extensive military intervention in Vietnam. Opposition to the war was exacerbated in the US by the compulsory military draft.

110. The Beatles- A rock ?n? roll singing group from Liverpool, England, that was phenomenally popular in the middle and late 1960s. The intense devotion of the group?s fans, especially the hysterical screaming that the Beatles provoked in large crowds of teenagers, was called Beatlemania. The four Beatles were John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, and Ringo Starr. Among their many popular songs, most wrote of which, were ?I Want to Hold Your Hand? and ?Hey, Jude.?

111. Wood stock- A village in New York state, where some 400,000 young people assembled in 1969 for a rock music festival.

112. Salt I Treaty- is the common name for the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks from 1969?1972 between the United States and the Soviet Union which resulted in a number of agreements relating to the offensive nuclear arsenals of the two nations and a reduction of the nuclear arms race. It was an important element of détente. salt I treaty is also used as a short-hand for the interim treaty resulting from the talks.

113. Impeachment- the process by which a legislative body formally levels charges against a high official of government. Impeachment does not necessarily mean removal from office; it comprises only a formal statement of charges, akin to an indictment in criminal law, and thus is only the first step towards possible removal. Once an individual is impeached, he or she must then face the possibility of conviction via legislative vote, which then entails the removal of the individual from office.

114. Watergate- A series of scandals occurring during the Nixon administration in which members of the executive branch organized illegal political espionage against their perceived opponents and were charged with violation of the public trust, bribery, contempt of Congress, and attempted obstruction of justice.

115. Gerald Ford- The 38th President of the United States (1974?1977), who was appointed Vice President on the resignation of Spiro Agnew (1973) and became President after Richard Nixon?s resignation over the Watergate scandal. As President, Ford granted a full pardon to Nixon (1974).

116. Earth Day- Apr. 22, a day to celebrate the environment. The first Earth Day was organized in 1970 to promote the ideas of ecology, encourage respect for life on earth, and highlight growing concern over pollution of the soil, air, and water. Earth Day is now observed in 140 nations with outdoor performances, exhibits, street fairs, and television programs that focus on environmental issues.

117. Moral Majority Inc.- U.S. political action group composed of conservative, fundamentalist Christians. Founded (1979) and led (1979?87) by evangelist Rev. Jerry Falwell, the group played a significant role in the 1980 elections through its strong support of conservative candidates. It lobbied for prayer and the teaching of creationism in public schools, while opposing the Equal Rights Amendment homosexual rights, abortion, and the U.S.-Soviet salt. The Moral Majority was dissolved in 1989.

118. Reaganomics- A popular term used to refer to the economic policies of Ronald Reagan, the 40th U.S. President (1981?1989), which called for widespread tax cuts, decreased social spending, increased military spending, and the deregulation of domestic markets.

119. Sandra Day O? Conner- 1930?, U.S. lawyer and associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1981?), b. El Paso, Tex. Graduating from Stanford law school (1952), she returned to practice in her home state of Arizona. There she was a state assistant attorney general (1965?69) and a Republican state senator (1969?74). Appointed a state judge in 1974, she was in 1979 named to the Arizona Court of Appeals.

120. Jesse Jackson- Once an aide to Martin Luther King, Jr., Jesse Jackson has been a political activist and public figure since the civil rights movement of the 1960s. Jackson, a Baptist minister, is the founder of the non-profit organization push (People United to Save Humanity).

121. Iran-Contra affair- A scandal in the administration of President Ronald Reagan, which came to light when it was revealed that in the mid-1980s the United States secretly arranged arms sales to Iran in return for promises of Iranian assistance in securing the release of Americans held hostage in Lebanon.

122. Operation Dessert Storm- A war fought in 1991 in which a coalition of countries led by the United States destroyed much of the military capability of Iraq and drove the Iraqi army out of Kuwait. Also called Persian Gulf War

123. William J. Clinton- The 42nd President of the United States (1993?2001). The first Democratic President since Franklin Roosevelt to be elected to a second term, his presidency was marked by economic expansion and the first balanced federal budget in thirty years. In 1999 he was impeached by the House of Representatives on perjury and obstruction of justice charges but was acquitted by the Senate on both counts.

124. Bill Gates- American computer software designer and business executive cofounder of Microsoft in 1975 and as chairman built it into one of the largest computer software manufacturers in the world.

125. Internet- An interconnected system of networks that connects computers around the world via the tcp/IP protocol.

126. Telecommunications Act- was the first major overhaul of United States telecommunications policy in nearly 62 years, modifying earlier legislation, primarily the Communications Act of 1934.The 104th Congress It approved the 104th Congress on January 3, 1996. United States President Bill Clinton signed into law on February 8, 1996. The legislation regulates Broadcasting by over-the-air television and radio stations; cable television operators; satellite broadcasters; Wire line telephone companies (local and long distance), wireless telephone companies, and others.

127. Proposition 187- a proposition introduced in California in 1994 to deny illegal immigrants social services, health care, and public education. A number of people and organizations were involved in bringing it to the voters.

128. Entrepreneurs- A person who organizes, operates, and assumes the risk for a business venture.

129. Millennium- A period of a thousand years foretold in the Book of Revelation. During the millennium, those who have been faithful to Jesus and who have not worshiped the Antichrist will reign with Jesus over the Earth. According to the Book of Revelation, the millennium will precede the final battle for control of the universe; Judgment Day will come afterward.

130. Terrorism- The unlawful use or threatened use of force or violence by a person or an organized group against people or property with the intention of intimidating or coercing societies or governments, often for ideological or political reasons.

131. Roe VS Wade- case decided in 1973 by the U.S. Supreme Court. Along with Doe v. Bolton, this decision legalized abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy. The decision, written by Justice Harry Blackmun and based on the residual right of privacy, struck down dozens of state antiabortion statutes.

World Studies Definitions 6.9 of 10 on the basis of 2731 Review.