Healthy Diet's Effect on Children's Teeth

Healthy Diet's Effect on Children's Teeth
Hypothesis A healthy diet can improve the state of children?s teeth. Aims In my investigation I will include: - To find out how tooth decay is caused and what the main reasons are for it. - To put forward a questionnaire on what children mostly eat and drink. - Ideas on how children?s tooth decay can be avoided. What nutrients are important to teeth. - To do some practical work on the foods rich in the nutrients that are important to teeth. - What nutrients are important to teeth. - Put forward ideas of what the diets of young children should be like. Tooth Decay Tooth decay is a wearing away of the tooth enamel. The bacteria from foods containing sugars and carbohydrates are left on the teeth, and over a period of time they destroy the teeth enamel and this results in tooth decay. Tooth decay occurs because each time you eat acid is formed that can eat into your teeth. Saliva can protect against the formation of acid, but only if it doesn?t occur that often. Fluoride, which is found in toothpaste, is the main element that strengthens and protects teeth. Friska tänder healthy teeth [image] The diagram above shows the different tooth sections. Below they are all explained: - Dentin ? The hard tissue located under the enamel of the tooth. Dentin is harder than bone. - Bone ? This is the tissue where the root of the tooth is anchored into.
Enamel ? The tough, shiny, white outer surface of the tooth. - Root ? The anchor of a tooth that extends into the bone of the jaw. - Pulp ? The soft centre of the tooth. The pulp contains blood vessels and nerves. - Gingiva ? Part of the gum tissue that surrounds the teeth and alveolar bone. - Cementum ? a specialized bony substance covering the root of a tooth. Formation of Tooth Decay 2. The dentin is porous so therefore it is eroded faster than the overlaying enamel. Because of this a large cavity could be forming inside the tooth without showing many visible signs. 1. After eating, food particles and bacteria form plaque on the surface of the teeth. The bacteria becomes an acid and begins to erode the calcium in the tooth?s enamel, this leads to a formation of a minute cavity. If this is left untreated, the acid will eventually eat through the tooth enamel. Tooth Decay1.jpg (10604 bytes) Tooth Decay2.gif (9260 bytes) 3. The decay continues and bacteria come in through the porous dentin and infect the pulp. The body launches an immune response to the infection so the blood vessels around the tooth enlarge and press against the nerves entering the tooth causing ?tooth ache.? Tooth Decay3.jpg (10036 bytes) 4. If the infection proceeds and a significant amount of bacteria invades? the pulp, the tooth and the root may die. This will stop the pain, but since the body is still fighting an infection, an abscess may form. Tooth Decay4.jpg (10040 bytes) 5. A tooth abscess will form around the base of a tooth?s root. This will cause aching and discomfort in the tooth, it will be painful to chew on. If the abscess is not treated, it will erode the bone near the tooth, and may lead to the formation of a canal, through the bone. Just before this reaches the surface of the gum, a boil may form. This may burst and release foul tasting pus into the mouth. Tooth-Root Canal.jpg (12243 bytes) Risks If tooth decay is caught and treated early it does not usually pose a health risk. However, if the decay is allowed to continue, the tooth may die and the spreading infection may result in blood poisoning, fever and swelling in the face and neck. Lack of good dental care diagram showing decayed teeth Common causes of decay Sugar is commonly believed to be the main cause of tooth decay, but it is also caused by carbohydrates, especially processed ones such as crisps, bread and pasta Allowing children to snack between meals on sweets, chocolate or crisps can cause tooth decay, because they do not brush their teeth after snacking. Also allowing toddlers to have sugary drinks and juice can cause tooth decay. Toddlers are not always encouraged to brush their teeth after drinking sugary drinks because people often forget that there is a lot of sugar in them. Also children do not always have access to a toothbrush after meals especially if they are eating out at a restaurant. Many drinks also contain acid which is highly corrosive for teeth. Preventing tooth decay To prevent tooth decay children should try to follow the following rules: ? Children should be encouraged to prevent tooth decay from an early age because a habit will form. ? They should brush their teeth after every meal to prevent a build up of plaque. ? Eating foods that protect against caries such as milk and cheese can raise the pH levels in the mouth and therefore protect against decay. If the pH levels in the mouth are raised it will protect the teeth against an acid attack. ? They should be encouraged to eat foods that are rich in the nutrients required to strengthen the teeth, such as Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorous and Vitamin C. They should also be made aware of which foods contain the nutrients required for healthy teeth. ? They should be encouraged to eat foods high in nsp (dietary fibre) because this helps to produce saliva which can prevent a build up of plaque and prevent caries. However, if too much fibre is eaten by young children, the food will pass straight through their digestive system and no nutrients will be absorbed. Nutrients that help teeth ? Calcium Calcium is the main mineral used by the body to strengthen teeth and bones. The stronger a child?s teeth are, the less chance a child has of getting tooth decay. A foetus in the mother?s womb can get a good supply of calcium if the mother has enough calcium in her diet. The foetus will take the reserves from the mothers body. Functions - It is the main material in strengthening bones and teeth. - It is required to help blood to clot. - It is required for the functioning of muscles and nerves. - It is required for the maintenance of bones and teeth. Sources - Milk - Cheese - Bread -Bones of canned fish -Hard water -Green vegetables Deficiency - Muscle weakness or twitching - Muscle pains and cramps - Brittle nails - Numbness, tingling and stiffness in feet and hands - Lower back pains - Insomnia - Depression - Irritability Calcium Excess - Abdominal Pain - Nausea - Constipation - Muscle Weakness Recommended Daily Allowance men women 0-3 Months 525 0-3 Months 525 4-6 Months 525 4-6 Months 525 7-9 Months 525 7-9 Months 525 10-12 Months 525 10-12 Months 525 1-3 Years 350 1-3 Years 350 4- 6 Years 450 4-6 Years 450 7-10 Years 550 7-10 Years 550 11-14 Years 1000 11-14 Years 800 15-18 Years 1000 15-18 Years 800 19-50 Years 700 19-50 Years 700 51-59 Years 700 51-59 Years 700 60-64 Years 700 60-64 Years 700 65-75 Years 700 65-74 Years 700 75+ Years 700 75+ Years 700 Pregnant 700 Lactating 1-3 Months 1250 Lactating 4+ Months 1250 ? Magnesium Functions - Helps with the formation of bones and teeth - Assists with muscle contraction and relaction - Assists with transmission of nerve impulses - Activates many different enzymes Sources - Sea vegetables (seaweed) - Seafood - Green leafy vegetables - Beans - Tofu - Whole grains RNIs This ranges from 50 ? 400 mgs, depending on your age, gender and health status. Deficiency - Heart disease - Aching muscles - Insomnia - Hair loss ? Phosphorus Functions - Works alongside calcium to build and maintain strong bones and teeth. - Helps our bodies convert food into energy. Sources - Dairy products - Egg yolks - Meat, poultry and fish - Beans - Cereals - Nuts - Soft drinks Deficiency - Bone Pain - Bone and teeth problems - Fatigue ? Vitamin C Functions - Growth and maintenance of bones, teeth, gums, ligaments and blood vessels - Wound healing - Iron absorption Sources - Citrus fruits - Strawberries - Red/green peppers - Broccoli - Cabbage - Sprouts - Tomatoes RDIs The rdi of vitamin C ranges up to 1000mgs depending on your age, gender and health status. Deficiency - Anaemia - Bleeding gums - Dental caries - Low infection resistance

Healthy Diet's Effect on Children's Teeth 9.5 of 10 on the basis of 4001 Review.