The Effect of Movement on Fitness

The Effect of Movement on Fitness
introduction For my coursework, I will be taking part in a training programme. My fitness level is average and I am capable of taking part in most sports activities. I play football quite regularly and I also play badminton. I don?t spend a lot of time at home, as I spend most of my spare time playing football. I have weights at home, so I do weight training although while I?m at home, most of my time is spent doing homework and watching T.V. My diet is mainly made up of food containing proteins and carbohydrates but I also try to eat a lot of fruits. I believe that although my general fitness is not the highest level of fitness it can reach, so I aim to gain a higher level of fitness through my training programme, as well as improving on my sports skills. hypothesis: I predict that exercise will have a positive effect on my fitness. I predict that it will increase my stamina and strength, because the more you exercise the fitter your body gets. aim: My aim is to prove the prediction I have made in my hypothesis. I will do this by carrying out secondary and primary research and analyzing it. definition OF fitness: Scientists studying exercise have identified nine elements that comprise the definition of fitness.
The following lists each of the nine elements and an example of how they are used:
Strength ? the extent to which muscles can exert force by
contracting against resistance (holding or restraining an object
or person)
Power ? the ability to exert maximum muscular contraction
instantly in an explosive burst of movements (Jumping or sprint
starting)
Agility ? the ability to perform a series of explosive power
movements in rapid succession in opposing directions (Zig-Zag
running or cutting movements)
Balance ? the ability to control the body?s position, either
stationary (e.g. a handstand) or while moving (e.g. a gymnastics
stunt)
Flexibility ? the ability to achieve an extended range of motion
without being impeded by excess tissue, i.e. fat or muscle
(Executing a leg split)
Cardiovascular Endurance ? the heart?s ability to deliver blood to
working muscles and their ability to use it (Running long
distances)
Strength Endurance ? a muscle?s ability to perform a maximum
contracture time after time (Continuous explosive rebounding
through an entire basketball game)
Of all the seven elements of fitness cardiac respiratory qualities are the most important to develop as they enhance all the other components of the conditioning equation. Physical Fitness Physical fitness refers to the capacity of an athlete to meet the varied physical demands of their sport without reducing the athlete to a fatigued state. The components of physical fitness are: Strength, Endurance, Speed, Flexibility and Body Composition. definition OF exercise: ?Activity that requires physical or mental exertion, especially when performed to develop or maintain fitness: took an hour of vigorous daily exercise at a gym." methods OF research: Secondary research: Below is the scientific research I have conducted on the Internet. From: http://www.cdc.gov/ key messages
Adolescents and young adults, both male and female, benefit from
physical activity.
Moderate amounts of daily physical activity are recommended for
people of all ages. This amount can be obtained in longer sessions
of moderately intense activities, such as brisk walking for 30
minutes, or in shorter sessions of more intense activities, such
as jogging or playing basketball for 15-20 minutes.
Greater amounts of physical activity are even more beneficial, up
to a point. Excessive amounts of physical activity can lead to
injuries, menstrual abnormalities, and bone weakening.
facts
About 14 percent of young people report no recent physical
activity. Inactivity is more common among females (14%) than males
(7%) and among black females (21%) than white females (12%).
? Participation in all types of physical activity declines strikingly as age or grade in school increases. [image]
Only 19 percent of all high school students are physically active
for 20 minutes or more, five days a week, in physical education
classes.
Daily enrollment in physical education classes dropped from 42
percent to 25 percent among high school students between 1991 and
1995.
Well designed school-based interventions directed at increasing
physical activity in physical education classes have been shown to
be effective.
benefits OF physical activity
Helps build and maintain healthy bones, muscles, and joints.
Helps control weight, build lean muscle, and reduce fat.
Prevents or delays the development of high blood pressure and
helps reduce blood pressure in some adolescents with hypertension.
Primary research: For my primary research I will take part in a six-week training programme. I will carry out certain activities over the six weeks and then analyse my improvement throughout the six weeks. I will also check my pulse-rate for each session, as this will show me if my overall fitness is improving. training methods ==== I have a wide variety of different training programmes available to me, such as Fartlek training, a training method which is based on a Swedish method of training. It means ?speed training? and is a form of continuous training. It alternates walking, brisk walking, running, jogging and fast steady running. This can be performed as required in a session, so the individual decides when they are ready to build up to a fast run after progressing from a walk. However, it is probably more effective to set off on a planned programme based on times and distances which will be walked, jogged and run at speed. Another training method available to me is Interval training, which consists of periods of work followed by periods of rest. This training method allows a rest period between periods of work, which prevents the performer from becoming too fatigued to carry on. However, the training method I have chosen is circuit training. What is Circuit Training? Circuit training is an interval training technique that minimizes the rest between sets and exercises. Instead of resting between sets of an exercise, you do one set of all exercises in a row, return to the first exercise and begin again. It can consist of weight training, alternating intervals of weight training and brief, high intensity cardiovascular exercise, fitness training and skills training. The types of training can be further divided into these categories: whole body, splits and sports specific. Sports Specific Sports specific circuit training is used by athletes to enhance their abilities and endurance. The circuits involve strength and cardiovascular exercises that are specific to the types of activities they will be required to perform in competition. This is the type of training I have chosen to do in my circuit. Why have I chosen Circuit Training? I have chosen circuit training because it will allow me to train on both my fitness level and sports skills. One of the advantages of circuit is that it is very adaptable, so I will be able to change any of my exercises if I think that it is not suitable for my circuit. Another advantage is the variety of ways in which I can use the circuit. Time taken, the amount of work done and the load for each area can all be changed. Principles of Training While doing my training I will be looking at the four principles of training: Specificity, Progression, Overload and Reversibility. Specificity: Any type of training must be suitable, or specific, to the physical activity or sport you are training for. It would not be wise to choose a strength-training method if you were hoping to build up to a running marathon. You may wish not only to choose one particular type of training but also to concentrate upon one particular area. It may mean building up strength in the legs or arms, or increasing flexibility in the shoulders, or improving reaction times. Specific exercise will produce specific results and this must be considered with two other points.
Individuals will respond differently to the same methods.
Each activity will have different, and specific, demands.
Progression: The training you are doing, and particularly the amount of overload, must be increased progressively. In other words, as you body adjusts to the increased demands which you are putting upon it then that demand must be steadily increased. Overload: This is making the body work harder in order to improve it. You will have a ?capacity? to train which will be the normal level you work at. In order to improve you must extend that capacity by increasing your workload. It can be achieved in the following ways: ? Frequencytraining needs to be increased. ? Intensity must be increased. ? Duration of each session could be increased. Reversibility: Just as progression can lead to improvement, if you stop or decrease the training you go into reverse and lose the effect. All the good you have done will be lost. Sometimes you cannot avoid stopping if you have an injury or if you are ill. An example of the effect of reversibility can be seen if someone breaks a leg. Part of the treatment is to put the leg in a cast to immobilize it. This will prevent the muscles from being exercised properly. how will these principles apply TO MY circuit? Three of these principles will definitely apply to my circuit; progression, specificity and overload.
My circuit will be designed to help me specifically with my
football skills.
As I carry out my circuit training for six weeks, I should
gradually progress in the exercises and the activities in my
circuit.
The time I will be working at each station of the circuit is one
minute, so I will overload my workout by trying to work as hard as
I can in just one minute.
How Will I Benefit? My circuit-training programme is for football and exercises; it will be based over a six-week period. The eight stations are specifically suited to what is needed to play football. The circuit is specified for both outfield players and goalkeepers, as it works on your arms as well as your legs. The main aim of my circuit is to improve my muscular endurance, muscular strength, speed, agility, cardiovascular endurance and ball skills over the following six-week period. These are all needed for outfield players and goalkeepers. safety While doing my training, I will be aware of the environment around me and check for and remove any objects which could harm me in the space I will be using. (I will be using a Gymnasium for my training). I will always check the equipment that I use so that I don?t use any faulty equipment which could injure me and I will also check that I set up the equipment correctly. I will also do a warm-up session before my training so that I slowly get my blood flowing and increase my heart rate. I will also include a cool-down session after my training to prevent build up of lactic acid in my muscles, which could cause cramp. performance I carried out my circuit training in the gymnasium. This is a plan of what my original circuit looked like: [image] Chip ball into hoops from behind the line. This is how I carried out my exercises on each station: Station one: Step-Ups Face a bench, step up right foot first, bring left foot up to join it, stand up straight, then step down with right foot first followed by left. Stand straight again before repeating. Station two: Tricep Dips On a bench, palms down, fingers just over the edge of the bench, legs out straight in front balancing on heels. Bend arms and lower weight down to the ground just gently touching bottom on the floor and then pull back up. Station three: Chipping Ball into Hoops Stand behind a line 15m away from two hoops. Place the ball on the line in front of you and place your foot under the ball. To raise the ball, you have to lift your foot, while lifting the ball at the same time and aim the ball towards the hoops. Station four: Squat Thrusts Body in press-up position, shoot legs to the elbows and then back to starting position. Station five: Sit-Ups Do this exercise with a partner. In a sitting position, hands just behind ears. Partner holds feet down. Legs at right angles, lie back and then curl up towards your knees. Station six: Dribbling Place six cones in a line. With a football, dribble the balls in out of the cones. Once you have reached the last cone, turn around and dribble back in and out of the cones to the starting point. Station seven: Shuttle Runs Standing sideways on to the cone, knees slightly bent. Run to next cone, bend down and touch with right hand and then run back to first cone and repeat. Station eight: Goal Keeping Standing on the goal line, get your partner to stand 10m away and take shots at you. Count how many shots you can save. monitoring I carried out my circuit training once a week, every Wednesday afternoon, for six weeks. I found some of the exercises hard at first but as I progressed through time, I got used to the exercises. I did my training with a partner, so I was motivated throughout the whole of the training session. While doing each exercise, I considered the safety aspects and made sure that there wasn?t anything in the gymnasium which could harm or injure me while I was doing my training. I also checked the equipment I was using and made sure that I was not using any faulty equipment. During week two, I injured my foot in a football match, so I could not carry out the exercises as well as I could in week three and my training went into reversibility. I decided to carry on doing the exercises and activities which involved using my feet so that I could overload the work done with my injured foot, so that I could progress to my original level of fitness quicker. I felt confident that my fitness was improving and I had a positive feeling because I could carry out some of the exercises with ease, which I could not do before, as I found them a bit hard to carry out. By the end of the six I felt that I really had improved and my state of mind was very confident as I had progressed throughout the six weeks. Before each training session, I performed a warm-up session to get my heart rate going and to flex my muscles and after each training session I performed a cool-down session to get my heart rate to its resting rate and to prevent the build up of lactic acid in my muscles. My warm-up consisted of a slow jog on the spot for one minute, and then stretching the muscles in my legs, arms and body. My cool-down consisted of a slow jog and then a few stretches. Results: Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Station 1 63 67 32 51 68 73 Station 2 45 52 56 61 64 68 Station 3 5 7 3 5 8 9 Station 4 52 53 30 46 54 59 Station 5 42 47 50 54 59 61 Station 6 7 10 4 6 9 11 Station 7 24 30 15 20 26 31 Station 8 8 9 6 11 12 14 [image] [image] I have drawn graphs of the results obtained from my training. This is a graph that shows how many step-ups I did in one minute for each week of my training. You can see that there is a steep fall of the number of step-ups I did in week three, and this is due to the fact that I was injured during this week. [image] This graph shows that the number of tricep dips I did in one minute for each week gradually increased. There is no fall in the number of tricep dips I did in week three, as my injury was in my foot so it did not have an effect on this exercise. [image] This graph shows how many time I chipped the ball into a hoop in one minute for each week. Like my graph for step-ups, there is also a decrease in week three, as the activity involved using my foot. [image] This is a graph for the number of squat thrusts I did in one minute in each week. This graph also shows a fall in week three. [image] As my graph for tricep dips, the results for this graph also gradually increases without a fall because this exercise does not involve using my feet. [image] This graph shows the number of times I dribbled the ball in and out of six cones and back. Again, this graph shows a decline in the results of week three. [image] This graph shows the number of times I ran from one cone to another in one minute for each training session. This exercise involved using my feet, so my results decreased when I did my circuit training during week three. [image] This graph shows the number of saves I made when 15 shots were taken at me while I was in goal. This activity consisted of mainly using my hands, but the was a small decrease in the number of saves I made during week three, as I was not quick enough moving on my feet. [image] This graph shows how I did on each station in every week. By looking at the graph, you can see that the main stations which were affected by my injury were stations one, four and seven. Overall I am quite happy with my results, as they show that I did gradually progress while doing my circuit, and it is good to know that I gained something out of all the work I have done over the last six weeks. I took my heart rate before and after doing the circuit every week and these are the results I got: before after recovery rate 75 112 4 minutes 78 110 3 minutes 76 109 4 minutes 74 110 5 minutes 77 108 4 minutes 74 106 3 minutes My heart rate while resting was around 74-75 beats per minute and my heart rate after exercising was around about 110 beats per minute. My average recovery rate was four minutes. My minimum recovery rate was three minutes and my maximum recovery rate was five minutes. [image] This is a graph of my resting rate. [image] This graph shows my heart rate after completing a circuit. [image] This graph shows my recovery rate after each session. evaluation In general my circuit programme was quite successful, as it tested and improved each area of fitness and skills that I wanted it to. Although it was quite successful, I feel that I could have improved my fitness more if I did not get injured and go into reversibility. I still think that I have not reached my highest level of fitness, but this can easily be achieved if I carry on doing working on my circuit for another few weeks. Station one of my circuit was very successful by the end of my training programme, as I did more step-ups in one minute and improved my cardiovascular endurance as well as my hamstrings and quadriceps. I found station two of my circuit the hardest exercise of all but I think that it was very successful, as was able to do more dips by the end of the six weeks and improve the endurance of my triceps. Station three of my circuit tested my accuracy and was also successful because I was able to improve my accuracy when chipping the ball and I chipped more balls into the hoops in one minute as the training carried on. Station four of my circuit tested my legs and was very tiring, as I had to work very hard on my legs. I think that this exercise was also very successful by the end of the training programme. Station five was sit-ups and I felt that I improved a lot in this exercise as I felt my abdominal muscles getting stronger after each session. I think that I improved more on this exercise because it was not affected by my injury. Station six of my circuit tested my co-ordination as I had to use my ball control and sense of direction at the same time while going in and out of the cones. This station also improve my co-ordination skills a lot more, as I was able to dribble the ball around the cones faster by the end of the six weeks. Station seven was shuttle runs, and I think that this was also a very hard exercise as I got very tired by the end of the exercise, but I did improve and felt less tired as the weeks went on. Station eight was goal keeping and I found this activity quite easy because it did not make me tired by the end but it did improve my goalkeeping skills, as I made more saves as the weeks went on. Overall I think that this was the most appropriate method of training for me, as it helped me improve my fitness all around my body and most other training methods only concentrate on one specific part of the body e.g. fartlek training mainly concentrates on the legs and is for people who are doing long distance running. My hypothesis stated that as I do more exercise, my fitness would improve. I have proved my hypothesis, as it is clearly stated in the graph that as I was doing the training I was getting better results every week. It is also backed by the evidence of the graphs of my heartbeats, as my recovery time was getting quicker.

The Effect of Movement on Fitness 8.1 of 10 on the basis of 1159 Review.