The Effect of Temperature on the Rate of Reaction

The Effect of Temperature on the Rate of Reaction
Aim The aim for this investigation is to carry out an experiment which I will be able to examine and measure the way temperature effects the rate of reaction in a number on conditions. The substances which will be used in my experiment to find how temperature effect the rate of reaction are Hydrochloric acid and Sodium thiosulphite they are going to be used at a range of different temperatures to maintain this, they are going to be placed in water baths programmed to get the substances to the right temperature before used in the experiment. Rates of reaction can be altered by the following:
Surface Area
Catalyst
Concentration
TemperatureThe theme of this coursework is ?temperature? and how it effects the rate of reaction that will be the factor which this coursework will revolve around investigating. Prediction I predict that when the substances are heated, the rate of the reaction will rises conversely, if they are cooled, the reaction slows down. In order to react, the particles in the substances must collide with each other. The rate of reaction simply depends on how often and how hard the reacting particles collide. I predict that the particles have to collide hard enough to produce a reaction between the Hydrochloric Acid and the Sodium Thiosulphite and the heat gives them more energy to move around and so increases the chances of a collision. Also, when particles do collide, they are more likely to react, rather than just bounce off each other, if they are moving faster. Cooling has the opposite effects, so the higher the temperature the faster I predict that the hydrochloric acid and the Sodium Thiosulphite are going to react which. The two chemicals which will be used in this experiment are both clear solutions, so i think when the reaction occurs it will turn cloudy or it might bubble these are characteristic of a reaction occurring. An example to back up my prediction is when cooking an egg in a hotter temperature it would be cooked quickly were as in a cool temperature it would be slower. [image]Equipment What it?s porous ? Beakers To measure the amount needed ? Water bath To get the correct temperature needed ? Stop watch To time the experiment ? Conical flask To put the substances into ? 2 Measuring cylinders To get the right amount needed ? Sodium Thiosulphate This is needed to conduct the experiment ? Hydrochloric acid This is a needed to conduct the experiment ? Paper cross This needed to see in the experiment ? 2 Syringes This is needed to get the right amount of substances needed in the experiment Safety
I will wear a lab coat and safety goggles throw out the
experiment.
I will also be careful not to spill any of the substances which
can be very hazardous and the area were I will be conducting my
experiment I will clear anything which doesn?t have anything to do
with the experiment because they might disrupt the process of the
experiment .
I will try not to be distracted and focus on my experiment at all
times in till the moment of completion.
Independent Variables
The rate of reaction between Hydrochloric acid and Sodium
Thiosulphate.
The time taken for the reaction between substances to occur.
The room temperature in which the experiment will be conducted.
Dependent Variables
The amount of Hydrochloric acid and Sodium Thiosulphate which I
put into the conical flask.
The temperature which at which the two substances are at when they
are in the water bath.
Method In this experiment I will be conducting a number of tests with the Hydrochloric acid and Sodium Thiosulphate at the following temperatures: 0ºc or ice, 20ºc, 30ºc, 40ºc, 50ºc and 60ºc. The reason am doing it with these temperatures is because I want to understand how the reaction will vary at different levels of temperature and then from the data that I will have collected, I will interpret what I have understood from this experiment. I will be putting the 2.5cm³ of Hydrochloric acid and 25cm³ of Sodium Thiosulphate both in different measuring cylinders and both put in with different syringes, this is to reduce contamination of the two substances together which might cause incorrect results. Then when measured the substances i will have to put it all together into the Conical flask and start the stop watch then I am going to observe a marker with a drawn cross on it through the solution and measure how long it takes for the cross to disappear and when the cross is not visible stop the stop. Then i will input my results into your chart and I will measure the units of time in seconds and also repeat the experiment 3 times to reduce the chance of inaccurate results so that I can get a accurate average which can be obtained by adding up the 3 results for the temperature and dividing it by 3 and I will follow this process through out my experiment on the different temperatures. Time taken for cross to disappear ice 1.26 1.29 1.2 20 1.2 1.21 1.18 30 0.44 0.46 0.42 40 0.32 0.3 0.3 50 0.26 0.30 0.30 60 0.18 0.17 0.21 The results above are hard to understand to see if it correspondes with my prediction, so I will make it easier to identify as shown below. [image] As the bar chart shows ach temperatures 3 results has been written in each column ice ,20º,30º,40º,50ºand 60º this bar chart shows that as the hotter it gets as we go along the graph the results decrease which backs up my prediction that the higher the temperature the faster it will reaction will occure as shown on the bar chart. But if you look at the 50º it should decreases but it has taken longer to reaction time this is a sign of a anomaly. Avrages table ice 85 20 79 30 44 40 34 50 28 60 18 [image]As the table demonstrates the results are not perfect there are a numbers which are to far apart for example ice and 20ºc, but there still are decreasing as the temperature goes up. As shown above on this scatter graph there is only one anomalies on the graph above is the clearest visually for me to show that my prediction is correct this is the scatter graph demonstrates my prediction which was that the higher the temperature the more collision which will cause the reaction time to reduce as the temperature increases. The factor which is the outcasts is 30ºc it should be in the 50-60 sec column there is many reasons for this result, which will be written in the evaluation basically the scatter graph corrospondes to what occurred at the time of the experiment was conducted. For all of these graphs I have got all my data and I inputed it into a bar chart and then a scatter graph this is to show a variety of formats to achieve a comparison between my prediction. Analyse When I was conducting the experiment in the different departments of temperatures, when I added the sodium thiosulphate with the Hydrochloric acid the mixture become cloudy as solid sulphur comes out of the solution (precipitates). As the temperature went up I noticed that, it became cloudier more quickly because it would take less time for the cross to disappear.higher temperature also increases the energy of the collisions, because it makes all the particles move faster which caused the solution to turn cloudy,when the temperature was collder it , took longer to become cloudy. My prediction corresponded to my experiment which in my view is a successful experiment. Evaluation My experiment as I said was a success,due to some of the results which I have collected,the following are things which I could have done to make it better :
Clean the residue of the reaction after using the flask which can
cause incorrect results so to prevent this I would have to clean
the flask after each time used.
Close the windows because it can cause the experiment to have
anomalies because it could alter the temperature of the
experiment.
If I had any anonymous results I will conduct my experiment again
to make my results reliable.
In conclusion from the results which I have collected from my experiment I can notice that depending on the temperature hot or cold it will corresponds to the time of the reaction to occur I have also learnt one factor of which alters the rate of reaction temperature, which causes faster collisions this is backed up by the charts.

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