nvestigating the Effect of Exercise on the Heart Rate

nvestigating the Effect of Exercise on the Heart Rate
Aim: ? To investigate the effect of exercise on the heart rate. =============== Hypothesis: I thinkthat when the length of exercise increases, the number of beats per minute will rise. The number of beats per minute will rises steadily because the amount of exercise will gradually increase causing the heart to bear faster. Aerobic respiration is the release of energy from glucose in the presence of Oxygen. Aerobic means in air, but it is the Oxygen in the air that is necessary for aerobic respiration. Anaerobic respiration is in the absence of air. This has a major part of your pulse rate rising during exercise because your heart starts to pump more blood faster so that energy can be delivered to the working muscles as quickly as possible. Method: - ? One person should be timing how long the other person should be skipping. ? You start skipping for 30 seconds until your partner tells you to stop. ? Quickly find your pulse on your wrist. ? Start counting the amount of times your heart beats for a minute long. Your partner will be timing this again
When your partner will tell you when to stop and you record you results in the table. ? You do each time given 3 times so that you have a fair test. ? After the 30 second timing you go onto doing 60, 90, 120 and 180 seconds. ? You should have 15 records altogether in your table. ? Once you have got them all work out the averages for each one and put it into a table. Apparatus: - ? Stop Clock ? Skipping Rope Health & Safety: - If you have laces to your shoes make sure that you have tied them up tightly making sure that you do not trip. Also make sure that you r are skipping on a flat surface making sure that when you skip you do not injure yourself in any way. Fair Test: - If the investigation is to be fair and to gain accurate results I must carry out the following. Make sure that when you exercise it is done accurately, not be under the time limit or over. Do not stop skipping in the middle of the experiment because this may have an impact on the results. Research: - Aerobic respiration is the release of energy from glucose in the presence of Oxygen. Aerobic means in air, but it is the Oxygen in the air that is necessary for aerobic respiration. Anaerobic respiration is in the absence of air. This has a major part of your pulse rate rising during exercise because your heart starts to pump more blood faster so that energy can be delivered to the working muscles as quickly as possible. Here is a molecular model of a glucose molecule. Glucose contains six atoms of Carbon (shown in blue), twelve atoms of Hydrogen (shown in green), and six atoms of Oxygen (shown in red). [image] In our tissues glucose can be broken down to release energy. [image]Glucose + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy Aerobic respiration takes place in almost all living things. It is easy to get rid of the Carbon Dioxide and excess water, this is excretion and maximum energy is released from the glucose so that when you exercise there is a continuous supply of energy to your working muscles. Unlike anaerobic exercise, aerobic exercise uses oxygen to keep large muscle groups moving continuously at a strength that can be maintained for at least 20 minutes. Aerobic exercise uses several major muscle groups throughout the body, especially demands on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems to supply oxygen to the working muscles. As a person engages regular aerobic exercise, the heart, lungs, and muscles all become more efficient at using oxygen. The heart pumps more blood with each stroke, the lung capacity of each inhalation increases, and the muscle fibres extract more oxygen from the blood. Some organisms can respire in the absence of air. This is anaerobic respiration. This does not release so much energy and it produces much more toxic waste products. However, if Oxygen is not available, anaerobic respiration is better than nothing. When this happens in our muscles we produce lactic acid that gives you cramps. The metabolism of glycogen or glucose to provide energy for exercise occurs in one of two ways, depending on the presence of available oxygen to the muscle, which in turn depends on the type of exercise being performed. Word Equation: - [image]Glucose + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide + Water Symbol Equation: - [image]C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O Results: - 30secs 1min 1min 30 2mins 2min 30 Test 1 110bps 120bps 136bps 157bps 182bps Test 2 105bps 118bps 128bps 162bps 175bps Test 4 112bps 115bps 141bps 167bps 189bps Averages 109bps 118bps 135bps 162bps 182bps [image] Analysis: -My graph shows that as the length of exercise increases the pulse rate raises which then cause the heart rate to increase. The highest increase in the pulse rate occurs at 180sec. When the body is exercising the muscles respire to produce energy, so the muscles can contract. Oxygen is needed the oxygen is carried in the haemoglobin of the red blood cell. The heart and lungs need to work harder in order to get a greater amount of oxygen to the muscles for respiration. In muscle cells digested food substances are oxidised to release energy. When muscles use oxygen in order to respire the process is called aerobic respiration: [image]Glucose + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide + Water (Aerobic) [image]C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O The heart rate rises because during exercise, respiration in the muscles increases, so the level of carbon dioxide in the blood rises. Carbon dioxide is slightly acid; the brain detects the rising acidity in the blood, the brain then sends a signal through the nervous system to the lungs to breathe faster and deeper. Gaseous exchange in the lungs increases allowing more oxygen into the circulatory system and removing more carbon dioxide. The brain then sends a signal to make the heart beat faster. As a result this, heart rate would rise. My graph confirms my hypothesis in that as the length of exercise is increased, the number of beats per minute will rise. The number of beats per minute rises steadily because the amount of exercise is gradually increased. The heart reacts to this by increasing the number of times per minute that it beats so that the muscles have enough oxygen and glucose to work with the greater amount of exercise. The only way in which my results do not coincide with my prediction is that the graph does not begin to level off. This is because the maximum heart rate was not reached during exercise. Overall my prediction has been proven correct so far that my results support my theory. Evaluation: ? I believe that I have a positive conclusion. I have decided this due to a number of factors. I repeated my results three times in order to take an average that would produce more reliable results. All my results were of a similar pattern. Although my results were very similar the test itself was not totally fair this is because if you stacked on the skipping rope time would pass by and you would have start the exercise again. If I were to do the experiment again I would try my best into not stopping or tripping over the skipping rope. Also as the length of exercise time got larger I became tired and in the outcome of this it may have affected the results. By looking at the graph there are no specific anomalies that can be seen. My graph continues to become steeper because the length of exercise had become more so more amount of heart beats would be needed. Overall I am quite pleased with my method of experimenting because I think I was as accurate as I could be and I also reached my initial aim which in some ways shows how I was successful. Although on the other hand I am not that pleased with it as well because I could have made me experiment more fairer by not stopping in the middle of skipping even though it became quite tiring, even though this did not show up in my results very clearly it may have had an impact on the results.

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