The Effect of Different Concentrations of a Substrate On an Enzyme

The Effect of Different Concentrations of a Substrate On an Enzyme
Introduction: Enzymes are biological catalysts. They are generally large proteins made up of several hundred amino acids. Enzymes catalyze thousands of chemical reactions that occur in living cells. Enzymes are highly specific so each one speeds up only one particular chemical reaction. Many kinds of enzymes are found in each cell but because they are used over and over there may be only a small amount of each enzyme present. In this lab activity, you will study the enzyme catalase and its substrate hydrogen peroxide. Catalase accelerates the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into water (H2O) and oxygen (O2). The chemical equation for this reaction is: 2 H2O2 --Catalase???→ 2H2O + O2 Catalase is found in both plant and animal tissues. It is especially abundant in plant storage organs such as potatoes and the fleshy parts of fruits. Catalase is extremely important in cells because it prevents the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide is a strong oxidizing agent, which tends to disrupt the delicate balance of cell chemistry. If too much hydrogen peroxide accumulates, it will kill the cell. Several factors affect the action of enzymes: salt concentration, pH, temperature, enzyme poisons, radiation, the concentration of enzymes, and the concentration of the substrate. This lab deals only with how an enzyme is affected by different concentrations of substrate ? specifically, what effect will different concentrations of a substrate (H2O2) have on an enzyme (catalase in potato juice). Objectives: 1. You will determine how different concentrations of a substrate affect the enzymatic activity of the enzyme catalase. 2. You will construct and interpret a graph of the data collected. Safety Notes: 1. Hydrogen peroxide can damage your clothes. Rinse any spills with water immediately. 2. Keep hydrogen peroxide out of your eyes. Wear safety glasses! 3. Report any accidents of spills to your instructor. Materials: (per group) 25 ml graduated cylinder 30ml beaker hydrogen peroxide ( the instructor will assign a specific concentration) forceps 5 paper circles ( Whatman #1 filter-1.0cm in diameter) graph paper large beaker or ice bucket containing crushed ice and water beaker of potato extract (prepared prior to class) or commercially prepared catalase (Place chunks of a large peeled potato into a blender along with 4 ice cubes and 250ml of ice water, grind, then filter through cloth ? store on ice in the dark.) Procedure: *Keep the potato extract (catalase) in an ice bath throughout the experiment. 1. Obtain your assigned sample of H2O2 concentration along with the other materials needed. 2. Record the percent of H2O2 in Table I. 3. Pour 25ml. of the hydrogen peroxide into the 30ml beaker. 4. Use forceps to obtain one paper circle and immerse the paper in the potato juice for 5 seconds. 5. Drain excess juice from the paper circle by touching on a paper towel for 10 seconds. 6. Place the paper circle into the hydrogen peroxide (at the bottom) with the forceps. The oxygen produced will get trapped in the fibers of the paper circle and cause the circle to rise to the surface. 7. Use a stopwatch or the second hand on a clock to calculate the time it takes for the paper to reach the surface. Begin timing the instant the paper touches the peroxide. 8. Record the time in seconds in Table I. 9. Repeat steps 3-8 4 more times using new hydrogen peroxide and a new paper disc for each trial. 10. Calculate the average time and record in Table I. 11. Obtain class data for each concentration of hydrogen peroxide used by all groups in the class and record this data in Table II. 12. Graph the results with the substrate (hydrogen peroxide) concentrations on the X-axis and the reaction times on the Y-axis. Optional activities: 1. You may want to use a constant hydrogen peroxide concentration and vary the catalase concentration. 2. You may want to test various plant and animal tissues: i.e.- muscle, liver, heart, potato, fruits, roots, and leaves. Samples may be chunks or ground, raw or cooked. Use 3%H2O2. Name___________________________ Student Evaluation What effect will different concentrations of a substrate have on an enzyme? Observations: Table I ? Group Data (_____%H2O2) Trial Time ( seconds) 1 2 3 4 5 Avg. Time Table II ? Class Data Conc. H2O2 Avg. time (sec) 0% 0.1% 0.5% 1% 3% Analysis/Conclusions: 1. Choose the word in parentheses that completes the sentence. The greater the concentration of H2O2, the (greater, less) time required to raise the paper circle. 2. Write a brief paragraph summarizing what you have learned about the effect of an enzyme on different concentrations of a substrate. Include the terms: enzyme, substrate, hydrogen peroxide, and concentration. Refer to your graph to help in your explanation.

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