A Research Study on The Effect of Work Motivation on Job Satisfaction

A Research Study on The Effect of Work Motivation on Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction has remained an interesting area of discussion in the field of management, psychology and especially in organizational behavior and human resource management, for a long period of time. Many economists have paid a great attention and inclination towards this subject in recent years (Kosteas, 2009). According to Ramayah, Jantan, and Tadisina (2001), Job satisfaction explains how employees are encouraged to come to work and how they are forced to perform their jobs. What are the things who make happy an employee on doing work and not to leave the job? Other researchers relates job satisfaction as being the outcome of the worker?s evaluations of extent to which the work environment fulfillment the individuals needs (Dawis & Lofquist 1984). According to Locke (1969), job satisfaction is a state of emotional gladness, results from the achievement of the goals that one get through performing his part of contribution in an organization. It?s a pleasant emotional status resulting from the evaluation of one?s job.
Rao (2005) in his study discussed that satisfaction at the job for a person acts as a motivation to work. It is not the self satisfaction, happiness or self-contentment but the satisfaction of the job. It is the combination of psychological & environmental circumstances that affect the person to fully satisfy with the job (Khan 2006). Thus Aswathappa (2003) discussed about the determinants of job satisfaction as it said that that the wage payment and monetary rewards are the two determinants. Different organization use different wage system and other rewards. The organizations pay wages and salaries along with incentives, perquisites, and non-monetary benefits.
Velnampy (2008), in his study on job attitude and employees performance concluded that job satisfaction have a great influence on the performance of the employee in future, as it enhances job involvement. On the vice versa situation the higher performance also makes people feel more satisfied and committed to the organization. The satisfaction and performance of the employee works in a cycle and are interdependent. Job satisfaction and involvement of the employee leads him to have high levels of performance.
Shahu & Gole (2008), in his empirical study of effect of Job satisfaction on Performance, they concluded that the job satisfaction factor is not been taken under consideration by the companies and companies need to develop plans so that their employees can show good performance. Performance level lowers with low satisfaction scores. There should be some awareness programs, pertaining to the stress & satisfaction level in the industries. It will help the organizations to understand the benefits of stress knowledge in relation to satisfaction and goal achievement in the industry.
Shah & Shah (2008), in their study of job satisfaction and fatigue variables found the negative relationship between the fatigue and satisfaction from the job. The fatigue is found as negative predictor of Job Satisfaction. The study clearly indicates the different issues for Call Centre employees in the context of Indian economy. There are different factors leading to dissatisfaction, these are on the job and off the job. It has been discussed in the study that if fatigue is been minimized, job satisfaction can be improved by various innovative and encouraging strategies.
2.2 Work Motivation
Luthans (1998) asserts that motivation is the process that arouses, energizes, directs, and sustains behavior and performance. That is, it is the process of stimulating people to action and to achieve a desired task. One way of stimulating people is to employ effective motivation, which makes workers more satisfied with and committed to their jobs.
Intrinsic motivation, however, can be defined as the motivation to perform an activity for it, in order to experience the pleasure and satisfaction inherent in the activity (Deci, Connell, & Ryan, 1989). According to cognitive evaluation theory and self-determination theory (Gagne´ & Deci, 2005), rewards that are interpreted as information about one?s competence and satisfy individuals? need for autonomy, will enhance intrinsic motivation.
Simon (1997, p.276) argued in his research work, why does the motivation required? The fundamental challenge of all companies is to encourage their employees to work for the organizational goals, whereas Pfeffer (1998) has argued in his research that in the long run, the success can be achieved by those companies that use to manage their employees; creating significant work and having satisfied employees, taking both side by side is the way to organizational effectiveness.
Frey (1997) showed that extrinsic rewards, like monetary benefits may interact negatively with the intrinsic work motivation. It has just seen that there is crucially dependence of intrinsic motivation on the extrinsic incentives.
Wright and Pandey (2005) described in their work that emotional attachment and loyalty is one of the most important factors of employee motivation that binds the employee to stick to the organization, many other benefits associated with the organization are also part of motivation.
Allen & Meyer (1990) have tried to answer the question that is; how an organization can analyze that whether it is keeping its employees happy, motivated and loyal to the organization? There is no pet answer as the work motivation is a counter effect of many factors linked to employees; how they interact with organization and what views they have about the organization. Work motivation can be evaluated by the degree of feeling attachment, obligations, and rewards in working in organization.
Horwitz et al (2003) predicted that employees get high motivation through challenging work environment and support of the top management. If the employees are competitive and want to do work with full efficiency as it will utilize all their capabilities, then challenging work is the best motivator. Many of the employees like to make relationships and thus need to contact more and more to the higher authorities, so making more regular contacts make them feel that they are been observed and work with more motivation.
Locke and Latham (2004, p.388) defined the work motivation as outcome of both internal and external factors that force the employee to work more excitedly.
Bacon et al (1996), Deshpande and Golhar (1994), and Julien (1998) have stressed upon the fact that employees have the key position in maintaining a competitive edge over the competitive market by a business.
2.3 Relation between Work Motivation and Job Satisfaction
Gupta & Joshi (2008) discussed about the relationship between the Job satisfaction and motivation for the employees. Productivity in the work of an employee is outcome of satisfaction and productivity can be taken as indicator of satisfaction. Employees have to spend most of their time at workplace and need satisfaction at that place.
Herzberg et al.?s (1959) has described a relationship between two variables as Job Satisfaction is the result of two kinds of factors, intrinsic and extrinsic factor; intrinsic factors appraised the job satisfaction and extrinsic factors cause dissatisfaction and reduce the level of job satisfaction. The extrinsic factors were also called as hygiene factors. According to Herzberg, the hygiene factors results in the form of dissatisfaction and these were external or environmental features e.g. company policy and administration, supervision, work conditions, salary and benefits. The intrinsic factors are also called satisfiers and motivators, included creative or challenging work, responsibility and advancement opportunities.
Kovach (1987) also tried to identify the relationship; the need to provide the basic necessities of life motivates most people which in return make the employees satisfied from their jobs. Whereas Brown (1996) examines that when an organization is having some satisfied or delighted employees, it is likely to have satisfied or delighted customers. Brown said the employee satisfied and delightedness as a prerequisite of customer satisfaction. Thus Wagar (1998) explained that in the global market, one can be successful when it has highly motivated, skilled, and satisfied workforce that can produce quality goods at low costs.

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