Many states have been plagued with the problem of Pfiesteria,
and until recently the cause was unknown. As the climates and
ecosystems change some organisms favor the change and others do
not. One organism that favors the changes is the dinoflagellates.
This organism creates a toxin that causes deep bleeding soars in
fish. Then the dinoflagellates eat the fish?s exposed flesh and blood.
Pfiesteria also has an effect on humans. It has been found to cause
severe headaches, blurred vision, nausea, difficulty breathing, short-
term memory loss, and cognitive impairment.In 1991 in North Carolina in the Neuse Rivr there were found to
be nearly one billion fish dead due to Pfiesteria. A mass death of fish
like this one is called a fish kill. The fish die when the Pfiesteria
thrives, and the Pfiesteria thrives on an increase of nitrogen and
phosphorous in the water. Animal waste from livestock, fertilizers from
farms, and wastewater from mining sites are three primary cause for
the increase in nitrogen and phosphorous.
Pfiesteria has also taken its toll on fishermen. Being near the
polluted sites has caused burning of the eyes and the throat. A
recreational fisherman was given a memory test in which he was given
ten items to memorizes, and he could only remember three.
The dinoflagellates have at least twenty-four different looking
phases. The dinoflagellates look just like other dinoflagellates when
they are in the fish attacking stage. If it is faced with a predator it
becomes an amoeba and can consume the predator. The
dinoflagellates also has a cyst phase where it can lay dormant and
protected for years at a time until the conditions are optimal again.
This makes Pfiesteria a level three biohazard.

Pfiesteria 8 of 10 on the basis of 2444 Review.