PSY 301, Introductory Psychology, 2000, Exam 3

PSY 301, Introductory Psychology, 2000, Exam 3
1. If the average college student is asked to recall all the U.S. presidents, she or he will likely: 1. Remember Abraham Lincoln because of the serial position effect 2. Forget Clinton because of emotional effects 3. Forget George Washington because of the historical calm that followed his presidency 4. Forget Polk because of serial position effects 5. Remember Reagan because of his ability to balance the budget 2. Jerome believes that his 4-year-old grandson is a hyperactive child because the boy?s constant movement resembles Jerome?s prototype of hyperactivity. Jerome?s thinking best illustrates: 1. belief perseverance. 2. the availability heuristic. 3. confirmation bias. 4. the framing effect. 5. the representativeness heuristic. 3. In the phallic stage, Freud talked about the Oedipus complex. According to him, the male child would successfully resolve this stage by developing a normal ________ through the psychological process of ______________ 1. sex role identity; identification
2. sense of self; sublimation 3. relationship with his mother; reaction formation 4. libido; fantasy 5. heterosexual sex life; latency repression 4. Most people take less time to identify a cow as a mammal than a mouse as a mammal because a cow more closely resembles their ________ of a mammal. 1. prototype 2. fixation 3. heuristic 4. algorithm 5. category 5. Generally, during periods of stress or tension, crime rates go up. Immediately after the Columbine shootings, violent crime rates dropped across the United States. What is the best explanation for this?: 1. The shootings served to reduce stress among people in other parts of the country. Like natural disasters, hearing about upheavals in other places gives people a false sense of security. 2. Consistent with Freud, the reminder of death satisfies our urge for ?thanatos.? Hence, crime rates drop after we see or hear about mass deaths. 3. The Columbine shootings were unique in that they were the first truly large-scale shootings in a public school. The decrease in crime rate was an illusion because Americans were simply less likely to report minor crimes since they seemed so trivial in comparison to the shootings. 4. Traumas bring people together for about 2-3 weeks, which helps to reduce people?s aggression towards each other. Soon after this period, however, people begin avoiding others, which can increase overall stress levels and feelings of hostility. 5. Freud?s claim about the Oedipus cycle has never been proven. 6. The organization of information into meaningful units is called: 1. automatic processing. 2. the spacing effect. 3. chunking. 4. the method of loci. 5. the peg-word system. 7. State lottery officials send residents a facsimile of a contest-winning check for over $5 million so as to encourage them to imagine themselves as possible winners. The lottery promoters are most clearly exploiting the influence of: 1. functional fixedness. 2. belief perseverance. 3. algorithms. 4. the availability heuristic. 5. the representativeness heuristic. 8. Use of present tense is to linguistic immediacy as _______ is to Big 5 1. trust 2. neuroticism 3. female 4. oral personality 5. obsessive compulsive 9. Julie Bob is usually extremely sweet, friendly, and very responsible. She is highly organized and almost always has a smile on her face. However, sometimes when people call her ?goody two shoes,? she flips out ? she cusses, throws things, and insults everyone around her. A few hours later, she acts as if nothing has happened and paints that big smile back on her face. Freud would explain her behavior in which way: 1. she grew up in a conflicted household where she saw her father abuse her mother 2. she was fixated during the Electra phase and never resolved her underlying hostility towards her mother 3. she was born with virtually no id; basically she is 99% superego 4. there were some serious problems or conflicts during her toilet training 5. she is one sick little cookie 10. The emotions associated with ________ experiences are likely to be forgotten more rapidly than the emotions associated with ________ experiences. 1. imagined; real 2. ordinary; pleasant 3. adult; childhood 4. novel; familiar 5. explicit; implicit 11. Assume that a Freudian and a humanistic psychologist were analyzing why the Columbine shootings occurred. The Freudian would emphasize ________; the humanistic would emphasize _____________ 1. human nature; parental influence 2. the complicated pressures in life; the dangers of too much free time 3. basic cruel human drives not controlled by the culture; basic loving human drives corrupted by culture 4. thanatos brought about by free association; the value of self-actualization taught in educational settings 5. drive for self-expression; the failure of the core model of self-esteem 12. Which of the following is true: 1. according to general systems theory, language serves the same function for all species 2. unlike humanistic psychologists, Freud believed that personality was the result of free will 3. most memories are stored in the parietal lobes of the cortex, which is consistent with neural network theory 4. the words we use in daily language provide clues to our motives, drives, and beliefs 5. Once the human genome project is complete, we will finally be able to understand all that is known about human behavior 13. Although Mr. Yanagita has recently learned to play poker quite well, he cannot consciously remember ever having played poker. It is likely that he has suffered damage to his: 1. brainstem. 2. cerebellum. 3. hypothalamus. 4. hippocampus. 5. motor cortex. 14. In normal conversation, who uses more cognitive words (e.g., words suggestive of causation, knowledge, insight) and why? 1. men because they are less emotional and more logical in most daily interactions 2. men because they tend to talk about more abstract rather than concrete topics than women 3. women because they are less emotional linguistically than men and approach new challenges more objectively 4. women because they tend to talk about social relationships which require more complex cognitive analyses than most topics discussed by men 5. It depends on the situation. In written essays, males are more cognitive; in daily interactions, females use more cognitive words 15. The tendency to search for information consistent with our preconceptions is called: 1. functional fixedness. 2. the availability heuristic. 3. confirmation bias. 4. the representativeness heuristic. 5. overconfidence. 16. Taped information played during sleep is registered by the ears but is not remembered. This illustrates that the retention of information often requires: 1. proactive interference. 2. state-dependent memory. 3. effortful processing. 4. chunking. 5. priming. 17. On the telephone Melvin rattles off a list of 10 grocery items for Pilar to bring home from the store. Immediately after hearing the list, Pilar attempts to write down the items. She is most likely to forget the items: 1. at the beginning of the list. 2. at the end of the list. 3. in the middle of the list. 4. at the beginning and in the middle of the list. 5. she most wants to remember 18. Different settings (e.g., sitting in a restaurant vs being at a church social vs a bowling alley) cause us to talk and think in certain ways. This idea: 1. is consistent with some of the basic assumptions of classical and instrumental conditioning that argue that specific stimuli bring about specific responses 2. is powerful support for evolutionary psychology in demonstrating that genes influence daily behaviors 3. has not been demonstrated due to the impossibility of studying language in the natural environment 4. has been shown to be false by research on the ?Big 5? approach to personality 5. is as nutty as a fruitfly in a peanut tree 19. A prominent monument (other than a small garden) has not been built on the UT campus to commemorate Charles Whitman?s murders of over a dozen people in 1966. Why? 1. During the first 2-3 weeks after the Whitman shootings, students and faculty talked about it at very high levels. This high rate of talking brought people together and allowed them to ?move on? and resolve their basic feelings about the shootings. 2. Such a monument is not needed or desired. Monuments are generally constructed to commemorate positive events rather than sad ones. 3. Monuments tend to be constructed in 25-30 year cycles. There was probably opposition to building a monument in 1991-1996; One is likely to be built around 2020 when the grandchildren of people who were UT students in 1966 reach the age of 40. 4. The Whitman shootings were not a significant event in the history of UT 5. At least a couple of these answers make good sense. Had I made it to class on October 25, I could pick the right answer for sure. No question about it. 20. Perhaps the most valid criticism of Freud?s theories is: 1. he did not appreciate the role that parents play in shaping their children?s personality 2. he did not appreciate the role of inborn biological drives in shaping people?s personality 3. he did not objectively test his theories using good scientific methods 4. he overemphasized the degree people were obsessed with sex and death due, in large part, to his living in a repressive sexual society 5. he never completely overcame his castration anxiety which, through his smoking cigars, eventually killed him 21. The pleasure principle is to the ________ as the reality principle is to the ________. 1. id; ego 2. id; superego 3. oral stage; anal stage 4. life instinct; death instinct 5. conscious; unconscious 22. It is common for medical students to be convinced they have the diseases they are studying. This is best explained by: 1. projection 2. neuroticism or NA 3. competition of cues 4. schemas and selective search 5. the greed of large insurance companies 23. According to Freud, understanding how the id, ego, and superego interact is essential to grasping the nature of: 1. self-actualization. 2. motivational conflict. 3. reciprocal determinism. 4. an external locus of control. 5. peer pressure. 24. According to the idea of competition of cues: 1. When the id and superego want different things, the ego must sort out the conflict 2. people would report more physical symptoms if they lived in an urban environment than if they lived in a rural one 3. people would be absent from work more if they worked around several coworkers than if they worked around only one or two people 4. people would report fewer physical symptoms if they lived in an urban environment than if they lived in a rural one 5. the onion skin model of personality has serious flaws 25. Although Carl wants to interact sexually with his girlfriend, he also wants to avoid premarital sex. Freud would have suggested that both desires might be partially satisfied by Carl?s: 1. ego. 2. collective unconscious. 3. id. 4. superego. 5. Oedipus complex. 26. A brief nationwide survey is conducted on 2,000 owners of the New Flipnotic Toaster ? a fancy new toaster that microwaves toast in 2 seconds. One of the questions on the survey is, ?Do you find the high pitched tone on the toaster unpleasant?? The researchers discover that people who find the tone unpleasant also tend to have a high rate of headaches. Based on your knowledge of NA and symptoms, do you think that Flipnotic toasters cause headaches? 1. yes, because people high in NA are no healthier or sicker than those low in NA. There is clearly a toaster problem. 2. yes, because Flipnotic toasters clearly appeal to people suffering from NA ? which causes headaches 3. no, because people high in NA complain about everything ? from toaster tones to their health 4. no, because the toasters are simply too new to allow enough time for people to develop headaches from them 5. it depends on whether microwave technology can toast bread without making it soggy 27. An individual?s scores on a personality inventory would be most useful for predicting how that person would typically behave: 1. in a work setting. 2. in a recreational setting. 3. in a mental health setting. 4. across a wide variety of different settings. 5. at a UT football game 28. Although Eduardo has repressed his own homosexual desires, he is distressed by a false suspicion that many men frequently stare lustfully at his body. According to psychoanalytic theory, Eduardo?s thinking best illustrates: 1. displacement. 2. projection. 3. regression. 4. reaction formation. 5. sublimation. 29. Julia and her boyfriend Roberto go to a wild party where everyone has been drinking heavily. Both Julia and Roberto (who have not yet had anything to drink) are given three ?mystery drinks? which they think are full of alcohol. In fact, the mystery drinks have no alcohol in them. Twenty minutes later, which of the two people will be acting and thinking that they are more drunk? 1. Julia because she relies on internal bodily cues more than Roberto to determine drunkenness 2. Julia because she relies on situational cues more than Roberto to determine drunkenness 3. Roberto because he relies on internal bodily cues more than Julia to determine drunkenness 4. Roberto because he relies on situational cues more than Julia to determine drunkenness 5. neither because people can always tell how much alcohol they have absorbed 30. Those who score above average on tests of mathematical aptitude are also likely to score above average on tests of verbal aptitude. According to Spearman, this best illustrates the importance of: 1. predictive validity. 2. factor analysis. 3. heritability. 4. the g factor. 5. reliability. 31. Although Gloria has detailed memories of her high school experiences, she can remember very little about the boyfriend who abruptly broke off their marriage engagement. According to psychoanalytic theory, it appears that Gloria is using the defense mechanism of: 1. reaction formation. 2. regression. 3. displacement. 4. repression. 5. projection. 32. According to actor-observer differences, 1. we tend to think other people?s behaviors are determined by situational influences whereas we view our own behaviors resulting from our personalities 2. when we play the role of actors, we see other people?s personalities as stable; when we are observers, we see other people?s personalities as unstable 3. actors often are unable to figure out the ground; observers can?t ground out the figure 4. the Freudian perspective assumes a core model whereas the trait approach is more consistent with an onion model 5. we tend to overuse personality to explain other people?s behaviors but tend to underuse personality in explaining our own behavior. 33. While reading a novel at a rate of nearly 500 words per minute, Megan effortlessly understands the meaning of almost every word. This ability highlights the importance of: 1. flashbulb memory. 2. the spacing effect. 3. automatic processing. 4. iconic memory. 5. effortful processing 34. The increased efficiency of neural circuitry that contributes to memory storage is known as: 1. chunking. 2. the next-in-line effect. 3. automatic processing. 4. long-term potentiation. 5. proactive interference. 35. Many successful athletes prepare for contests by imagining themselves performing their events. This mental rehearsal best illustrates the effectiveness of: 1. the representativeness heuristic. 2. the belief perseverance phenomenon. 3. algorithms. 4. the framing effect. 5. thinking without language. 36. Habib and Chuck were identical twins separated at birth. Habib is president of his high school, a track star, and has dozens of very close friends; Chuck has never won an election or athletic even in his life and has absolutely no friends. Oddly ? or not so oddly ? Habib and Chuck have exactly the same high levels of self esteem. According to the core model of self-esteem, which of the following would be the most likely explanation: 1. Habib is overcompensating because, deep down, he has low self-esteem, just like Chuck 2. Since puberty (that is, after age 12), Chuck has learned to boost his self-esteem through self-training programs wherein his inner core has grown 3. Chuck received more unconditional love from his adoptive parents during the first two years of his life than did Habib 4. The affiliation and achievement portions of Chuck?s external core are perfectly symmetrical, unlike those of Habib?s 5. The affiliation and achievement portions of Habib?s external core are perfectly symmetrical, unlike those of Chuck?s 37. We will know if this is a good question on this exam if: 1. people who get this question right tend to get other questions on this test right (a mark of good internal reliability or consistency) 2. the people who get this question wrong did not study (a mark of reliability over time) 3. everyone in the class gets this question right (a mark of intrinsic validity) 4. this same question was on every exam and the people who got it right this time were the ones likely to miss it next time (a mark of variable reliability) 5. that person sitting in the back row, two people to the left of the guy with the hat gets it right (a mark of good character) 38. In suggesting that the mind is like an iceberg, Freud was most clearly emphasizing the importance of the: 1. ego. 2. superego. 3. instincts. 4. unconscious. 5. psychosexual stages. 39. Where do the Big 5 dimensions of personality come from? 1. The University of Minnesota Conference on Personality in 1933 where an international panel of theorists agreed what dimensions of personality were most important 2. They were statistically derived (using factor analysis) and reflect five central dimensions of self-reported personality 3. The five fundamental stages in Maslow?s hierarchy of needs 4. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (mmpi) 5. The Thematic Apperception Test (tat) 40. What is the most likely reason that over half of the students in class can?t recall what a yield sign looks like? 1. Most strong memories are formed between the ages of 12 and 25 ? the average class age is only 18. 2. Yielding is associated with a yellow traffic light; people have reconstructed what a yield sign must look like. 3. The yield sign is a reconstructed memory of a stop sign. 4. Memories reflect IQ or intelligence; those who can accurately recall a yield sign are simply the smart ones in the class. 5. Yielding is a social construction created by the dominant members of society; in short, a form of repression.

PSY 301, Introductory Psychology, 2000, Exam 3 8.9 of 10 on the basis of 4007 Review.