Dysfunctional Behaviour Disorder

Dysfunctional Behaviour Disorder
Depression
Mood disorders are one of the most frequently occurring
psychopathologies, within which the dsm IV distinguishes between
two main categories of mood disorder; uni-polar depression and
bipolar depression.
Uni-polar depression
Can present four types of symptoms - dsm IV states that either depressed mood or loss of pleasure, plus at least another 4 symptoms must be shown during the same two-week diagnosis to be made - Emotional symptoms ? intense feelings of sadness or guilt, lack of enjoyment - Motivational depression ? passivity and great difficulty in initiating action or making decisions - Cognitive symptoms ? frequent negative thoughts, faulty attribution of blame, low self-esteem, and irrational hopelessness - Somatic symptoms ? loss of energy or restlessness. Disturbance of appetite, weight and sleep.
Bipolar Depression
- Involves normal symptoms of depression followed by mania or hypo mania (shorter, less severe mania). - Mania involves four symptoms - dsm IV states that a manic episode must involve a distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive or irritable mood, lasting at least a week?, plus at least 3 additional symptoms - Emotional symptoms ? abnormally euphoric elevated or irritable mood - Motivational symptoms ? Increase in goal directed activity and increase in pleasurable activities that have a high risk of painful consequences - Cognitive symptoms ? inflated self-esteem or grandiosity - Somatic symptoms ? decreased need for sleep, psychomotor agitation, more talkative, pressured speech (b) Evaluate the use of one therapy or treatment for the dysfunctional behaviour (disorder) described in part (a) (14 marks)
Medical model views mental disorders as being caused largely, if
not exclusively, by physical factors
As a result, the medical models favoured therapeutic approaches
are physical, and collectively known as somatic therapy.
Although many somatic therapies have been abandoned, three are
still used, one of which, chemotherapy, (the Use of drugs to treat
mental disorders) has been the most influential of the currently
used somatic therapies.
Drugs (chemotherapy) - Biological perspective suggests that the biochemical processes may play a causal role in affective disorders that involve imbalances in the neurotransmitters nor adrenaline, serotonin and Dopamine. - (Expand on this explain the role of the neurotransmitters and how the biological model explains the development of depression in relation to the imbalance of these neurotransmitters)
There are four main types of drugs used to treat a variety of
different mental disorders and their various symptoms.
The group that is particular associated with the treatment of
Depression are the anti-depressants.
Anti-depressant drugs: a group of different types of drugs that
have been found to reduce the different symptoms of depression, by
affecting different physiological processes in the brain.
Example: Tricyclic anti-depressants work by blocking the re-uptake
of neurotransmitters, making more of them available. This is based
on the assumption made by the biological approach, that a
decreased amount of such chemicals can cause depression. Other
processes of the other groups of drugs include, reducing the
amount of enzyme available that breaks down certain
neurotransmitters and increasing the amount of serotonin available
in parts of the brain.
Possible side effects:
- Require adherence to special diet - Associated with cardiac arrhythmias and heart block, urinary retention
Other effects;
- Chemotherapies do not always work, possibly because disorders such as depression are not simple caused by biological factors. - Drugs only offer a temporary alleviation of symptoms rather than curing the underlying problem - Take long time to have an effect - When mood improves other therapies can be used to discover root of disorder, i.e. psychodynamic models therapies - In the long term they are useless and do not eradicate depression - Drugs have been proved to be prescribed for unnecessary use. - Notion that individuals with mental disorders are suffering from an illness could be regarded as ethically desirable, as it suggests that they are not responsible for their condition - Undesirable to encourage individuals with mental disorders to hand over complete responsibility for their recovery to experts trained in treating ?mental illness?
Studies and their evidence
- Lithium salts have been found 80% effective in patients with manic-depression. - Has been proved to allow patients to function normally in daily life - Although many patients death to take medication because they like being in a euphoric state and because of the side effects. It is toxic and can lead to gastrointestinal and cardiac problems, and possibly death. - Kirsch et al (2002) found that people prescribed a placebo fared almost as well as those prescribed with an antidepressant. Other studies (e.g. Murlow et al) found stronger effect for the real thing.

Dysfunctional Behaviour Disorder 9 of 10 on the basis of 2967 Review.