Pollution

	 Pollution
There are different types of pollution, but there is one definition,which covers all forms:pol?lu?tion.1. The act or process of polluting or the state of being polluted,especially the contamination of soil, water, or the atmosphere bythe discharge of harmful substances.2. Something that pollutes; a pollutant or a group of pollutants:Pollution in the air reduced the visibility near the airport.
Different Types -?????? The four main types of pollution which are currently affecting Cairo are noise, air, land and water. Air Pollution in Cairo ====== Cairo has a serious air pollution situation due to motor vehicles and industry. The city government frequently monitors air pollution to measure concentration of noxious gases. In addition, it utilizes all forms of media to promote environmental conservation within the city, including celebrations like the annual Nile Inundation to encourage environmental awareness. [image] Modern Cairo Traffic Air quality in Greater Cairo is a major concern to the Government of Egypt, particularly with regards to adverse health impacts. What is the cost of air pollution In Cairo? The World Health Organization reports that the Air Pollution in Downtown Cairo is 10-100 times what is considered a safe limit. Cairo is in the company of other Cities like Mexico City, Bangkok, San Paulo, Delhi, Tokyo which are among the worst Cities in the World in terms of air pollution. CairoAssuming Cairo has a population of 12 million, The simple risk calculation comes to the conclusion that : half a million of the Cairo residents will develop in a period of 5-25 years serious health problems (respiratory diseases and cancer ) that will result in premature death. That is one person out of every twenty-four persons living in Cairo. That person can be a member of your family, a relative or a friend. This is caused by air pollution due to particulate in air alone. More than one million vehicles are on the streets of Greater Cairo, and that number grows significantly each year. Egypt?s Environment Law 4 of 1994 established standards for vehicle emissions to reduce carbon monoxide and other harmful substances that have the greatest impact on human health. CAIP?s Vehicle Emissions Testing, Tune-Up, and Certification (vet) component is working to reduce emissions of harmful air pollutants from motor vehicles and improve fuel efficiency. The program will be implemented gradually. As agreed between the Ministries of Environment and Interior (traffic Authority), the first phase of the vet program will test vehicle missions on the road, using mobile analysers. [image] [image] Noise Pollution in Cairo Things like cars, and people, and the city area, with nightclubs and boom cars cause noise pollution. Today?s Dallas Morning News (6/26/97) has an AP story about an Egyptian government campaign to warn citizens about the "dangers of noise pollution and [to] soften them up for what it says comes later: fines from traffic police and the newly created environmental police." ?Noise has become the problem and illness of the era" says an ad from the Environmental Affairs Agency. The campaign is aimed at reducing the maddening honking that is a near constant on Cairo streets, the clanging at construction sites, and the blair of loudspeakers that broadcast the Islamic call to prayer five times a day. The government has banned the import of the loudest type of auto horns. The article did not mention boom cars. Maybe the Egyptians are lucky enough not to have been afflicted by this plague. Cairo (Photo) (38k) Water Pollution goals The Institute?s mission is the rational protection and development of the River Nile in a sustainable scientific manner. The main objectives are: 1. Control of the quality of the River Nile water and Lake Nasser 2. Protection of the existing barrages 3. Development of navigation 4. Protection of bank erosion 5. Utilization of the sediment deposited in the Aswan High Dam institute activities The following studies are being conducted by the Institute: Monitoring and Evaluation of the sedimentation in Lake Naser and its effect on the reservoir storage capacity and Aswan Dam operation Study of the fluvial characteristics of the River Nile and changes in the river regime Assessment and prediction of the effect of fluvial hydraulic and hydrological changes on the major hydraulic structures of the Nile and on the various uses such as irrigation and hydropower generation Preparation of studies and projects required for the protection and development of the River Nile, including their economic, environmental and social impacts Development of the techniques to delineate and improve lands within the river training and management lines Evaluation and assessment of the impact of new developments and interventions on the River Nile channel, water quality, and shoreline Development of technologies for river bank protection and river front improvement for rural, urban and tourist centers along the Nile Monitoring of water quality in the river main channel and its pollution sources for chemical, physical and biological characteristics Assistance in enforcement of pollution control laws related to Nile waters Monitoring of water quality in the Nassau for chemical ,physical and characteristics Application and Development of numerical models to study sediment transportation along the River Nile and estimate water surface profiles for different scenarios of water management policy Studying the High Dam effect on seepage and ground water Development of database system that include data related to hydraulic, hydrologic, morphological changes, and water quality of the Nile River and Lake Nasser gis Development and application using topographic and hydrographic data for studying morphological changes and water quality monitoring along the Nile River Producing bathymetric charts of the Nile River Producing of Navigation charts Dissemination of information and data emanating from studies, research results, and from publications, conferences, symposia or other media Exchange of data information with national, regional and internal organizations with shared interests expected outputs Evaluation of the side effects of the Aswan High Dam on the Nile River channel and surrounding environment Solution of problems regarding: Degradation. Sedimentation. Water quality. Water pollution. Protection of the existing Nile control works and proposed new hydraulic structures for generation of energy and Nile improvements. Navigation waterway improvements Nile side-slope stability and protection of agriculture lands from erosion Island generation along the Nile course Drop in water levels on the River Nile and the three main canals Land Pollution At the moment, the land in cairo is being polluted, by sewage, factories dumping chemicals, straw burning and other things. [image]In the unserved areas, where on-site sanitation is practiced, the most common type is a simple leaching pit. If the prevailing type of soil and groundwater permit deep percolation, wastewater reaches the groundwater table carrying all types of pollutants. This condition is more severe than leaking sewers with respect to groundwater pollution due to the fact that pit wastes are more concentrated in both organic and inorganic loads. If the soils and groundwater do not allow percolation, the accumulated wastewater is regularly emptied by vacuum trucks which deposit their loads into the nearest channel or agricultural land. A more serious condition may arise if regular emptying is not available, as it necessitates inhabitants entry into the pit for manual removal of sludge. Solutions [image] Natural gas is a fossil fuel extracted from underground reservoirs, where it was formed millions of years ago from organic matter. Tremendous pressure from the overlying rock, combined with the earth?s heat, converted the organic matter into fossil fuels, including coal, oil, and natural gas. Coal is solid, oil is liquid, and natural gas is a vapor, like air. Natural gas is composed primarily of methane (85 to 95 percent). It also contains other hydrocarbons, such as ethane, propane, and butane, and other gases, such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and helium. [image] When a network of vehicle emission testing stations and a technical/training center have been completed, emission testing will become part of the routine license renewal procedures. Meanwhile, caip is enhancing the low emissions tune-up capacity in the vehicle repair sector. Lead pollution abatement Environmental studies show that lead is a major component of air pollution in Cairo. The Lead Pollution Abatement component (lpa) supports implementation oof the Government of Egypt?s Lead Smelter Action Plan. The government is taking positive steps to decrease lead pollution by making lead-free gasoline available to the public and through the implementation of other action plans. However, lead particles emitted from heavy transport vehicles and lead smelters arc in excess of the maximum permissible limit defined by the law. Air quality monitoring caip established the Air Quality Monitoring Program (aqm) to measure lead (Pb) and fine particulate matter (PM) levels in Greater Cairo?s ambient air. By August 1998, a 36-station monitoring network, ranging from Kaha in the north to Tebbin in the south, was installed and operating. The sites are in heavily trafficked, residential, urban, and industrial areas. Several sites provide background data, measuring Pb and PM levels before the air reaches Cairo.

Pollution 8.4 of 10 on the basis of 2010 Review.