6-Week Training Program

6-Week Training Program
To maintain or improve skill and fitness, training needs to takeplace. Training can be in many different forms and applied in manyways. The main aspects of training are:
The principles
The methods, application and effects
Training sessions
There are four basic principles in all training sessions applied to skill and fitness: ? Specificity ? Overload ? Progression ? Reversibility Specificity Training must be specific which means that it should concentrate on the particular needs of the individual within the training programme. For example, lifting weights will increase muscular strength but will have little effect on the aerobic capacity of the individual. Although training should be specific to a sport this does not mean that training for sport will have little effect on another. Transfer of training can take place where the sport or parts of a sport have a great deal of similar elements of fitness are common to many sports Overload Overload is the term used to describe activities that impose demands on the body, which are greater than usual. There are three ways in which overload can be considered: frequency, intensity and duration. Frequency The frequency of training is the number of times training occurs. As levels of performance rise, the frequency of training is often increased. Top performers need to train most days, particularly long distance runners who need to run considerable distances in training to improve their aerobic capacity. Intensity Raising the workload increases intensity. This means that you would have to run faster, lift heavier weights or stretch farther than normal during training. These increases would be built up over a period of time. Duration How long the training sessions takes place is determined by the activity and the fitness of the person. Untrained athletes may only be able to work for a few minutes when they are starting a new event. As athletes improve, they are able to train for longer periods. Progression Progression occurs as the body adapts through overload. Training needs to be progressive. If the overload of the body systems is increased appropriately, then the improvement caused by training easily be seen, especially in the early stages of the training programme. If it is increased inappropriately then the body will not take on smooth progression because the body can?t adapt to too much overload. Sometimes a performer seems unable to make progress and stays at the same level for a period of time. This is known as a ?plateau?, but performers are often able to improve after some time at this fixed level. Reversibility This is the reverse of progression. Once training and performers are reduced, the body naturally adapts to the new circumstances: Ø The aerobic capacity can be quickly reduced through lack of exercise. Ø Muscular endurance diminishes when muscles are no longer used over extended periods of time. Ø Skill levels however can often remain high, but performance in skills might be reduced because of physical decline. It is estimated that muscles lose strength three times more quickly than they gain it. This means as a general rule, it is suggested that a sportsperson has to do three weeks training just to get back to the level he or she was at prior to stopping for one week. training sessions All training sessions should have three main parts: ? Warm up ? Training activity ? Cool down The main training sessions may be divided up to concentrate on specific aspects of the training schedule, but these must not be started before warm up is properly completed. Warm up The warm up period should: º Increase the flow of blood to muscles. º Increase arousal levels to the activity. º Reduce the risk of injury to muscles and tendons. The warm up should prepare both body and mind for work. The training activity This is the body of the training session. It could be: Þ Continuous e.g. swimming, jogging, cycling Þ Fartlek, meaning ?speed play?. This is similar to continuous training but containing short, sharp bouts of efforts of a much higher intensity. These may be 5 to 10 seconds duration and recur every 2 to 3 minutes. Þ Interval training, which involves alternating work periods of high intensity with rest periods. Þ An actual practice game, e.g. football Þ Circuit training to develop muscle, fitness or skill. Cool down Cool down exercises at the end of the training sessions are as important as warm up exercises. When a training session ends a large supply of blood is retained in the muscles. This blood should be returned to the general circulation as soon as possible, otherwise it may pool in the veins. If pooling does happen and the heart is still beating very fast, some organs may be deprived of oxygen. E.g. the brain being deprived of oxygen can cause you to become dizzy. Gentle exercise, such as jogging, is needed to ensure that the body returns to its normal state. The time your body takes to get back to normal after exercise is called your recovery rate. Your heart rate slows down to your normal resting heart rate. The time it takes to return depends on how fit you are. The fitter the person is the quicker their heart rate returns to normal. Rest periods Rest periods are as important to training as hard physical exercise. During intensive hard work the muscle fibres may become slightly damaged and also develop a shortage of glycogen. The inclusion of rest days in the training schedule when only very light physical work or none at all is done will allow the muscles to recover. Also, a correct diet is needed to allow a good healthy physical lifestyle. You need the correct amount of carbohydrates, fats, sugars, vitamins and things from all the food groups There are three different body types: Ÿ Endomorph is a shorter, larger and wider body shape. Most rugby players have an endomorph body type because that is what they need for their sport. They need to be a big body build so they can stand their ground and not be tackled easily. Ÿ Mesomorph is a more muscular body shape with not as much fat as an endomorph body type. This type of body normally belongs to a swimmer because the need to be muscular to get through the water quickly. Ÿ Ectomorph is a taller, thinner build with minimal extra fat. High jumpers are normally this body type so they do not have as much weight to get over the high jump bar. Skill related fitness Ÿ Agility is the ability to quickly change direction. This could be used in a football match to shake off an opponent and keep the ball. Ÿ Balance is the ability to hold a static balance. This could be used in gymnastics to hold a position on the bar. Ÿ Co-ordination is the ability to move two parts of your body at the same time or line up two parts of your body. For example, a goalkeeper would need to move both hands in the flight path of the football as quick as he could. Ÿ Power is the ability to move from a static position to a run, for example. This could be used by a one hundred-metre sprinter to get out of the blocks quickly. Ÿ Reaction time is the ability to react to a stimuli. For example, the starting gun in a sprint race. Ÿ Speed is how fast your muscles can contract. planning A 6-week training programme ü Establish personal details about the performer through a questionnaire. (See Fig.1) ü Using the above information, and fitt (Frequency, Intensity, Time, Time) plan a training programme. ü Decide what aspects of the performer need improving o E.g. more upper body strength o Speed and agility Method for Planning A Training Programme I decided to design a 6-week training programme for myself. The training program will be specific for rugby. I am a keen sportsman who likes a variety of sports all throughout the year. I do not keep myself fit through a training programme, but I do play a lot of sport throughout the week that keeps my reasonably fit. I have to take into account that I don?t like repetitive exercises. To avoid this I have suggested that I only do the same exercise every 3 or 4 days. I will also have a rest on a Monday and Thursdays for recovery. This is what I did during the 4-weeks that I was recording my activities: Week Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday 1 Rest R60 R90+F90 Rest O100 R70+F90 F80 2 Rest R60 R90+F90 Rest F50+O50 R70 F80 3 Rest R60+F90 R90+F90 Rest F50+O50 F90 F80 4 Rest R60 R90+F90 Rest O100 F90 F80 C=Circuits C1=Circuit 1, C2=Circuit 2 R=Rugby F=Football Number=Time Taken E.g. R60 = rugby for 60 minute CR=Cricket B=Badminton O=Other In P.e. Ect. The 4-week training program in the table above is a story of what exercises I have done in that time. I have decided to alter my training program. I have done this so that I can improve my rugby fitness and skills. For this I have added in some circuits, Circuit 1 and Circuit 2. Circuit 1 ? Press ups ? Triceps bench dips ? Squats ? Shuttles ? Step ups ? Sit ups This circuit should improve my general fitness and muscular endurance but has no effect on my rugby skills so is not specific to my sport. The next circuit will be more related to rugby. Circuit 2 ¥ Pass a ball to hit a target ¥ Tackle a partner or tackle bag ¥ Press ups ¥ Bench press (max weight, min reps) ¥ Shuttles Fartlek training is also very important to a rugby player so that could be added into my training program but I will add it in at a later date. Week Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday 1 C1 R60 R90+F90 Rest O100 R70+F90 F80 2 Rest R60 R90+F90 C2 F50+O50 R70 F80 3 C1 R60+F90 R90+F90 Rest F50+O50 F90 F80 4 Rest R60 R90+F90 C2 O100 F90 F80 C=Circuits C1=Circuit 1, C2=Circuit 2 R=Rugby F=Football Number=Time Taken E.g. R60 = rugby for 60 minute CR=Cricket B=Badminton O=Other In P.e. Ect. This change in training program was very good as I now feel a lot fitter and my contribution to the rugby team was substantially improved. Fig.1 Personal Fitness Questionnaire Name ????????????????? Sex ????????????????? Age ????????????????? Reasons for wanting to get fitter ??????? ??????????????????????? Any Injuries (Current) ??????????? (Historical) ??????????? What sport/s do you play? ??????????? How fit do you feel today? . Low fitness/Medium fitness/Fit/ Very fit Any health problems? ????????????? Any likes/dislikes in exercise? ????????? ??????????????????????? Date ??./???/??. Signature ??????????????

6-Week Training Program 8.7 of 10 on the basis of 4387 Review.