Production of Zinc Sulphate

Production of Zinc Sulphate
Aim: My aim for this investigation is to make Zinc Sulphate and find the percentage yield. I am going to produce 14g of Zinc Sulphate. Hypothesis: I predict that when we mix Zinc oxide (Zno) with sulphuric acid (H2so4), I will get an end product which is a cleanly white solution. The solution is Zinc Sulphate (Znso4) and water (H2o). I also predict that there are other chemicals which can also be mixed with Sulphuric acid to produce Zinc Sulphate. The chemicals are Zinc hydroxide (ZnoH) and Zinc carbonate (Znco3). I think the Zinc Sulphate produced with these different chemicals will have different reaction rates. I also think that Zinc Oxide is the compound which will produce 14g Zinc Sulphate.
Introduction: Zinc sulphate is a compound which is made up by mixing either zinc oxide, zinc carbonate or zinc hydroxide with sulphuric acid. Zinc sulphate is produced in the industry and in the laboratory. Description of Zinc Sulphate: ========= Appearance and Odour: White free-flowing powder (anhydrous and hydrate); anhydrous ZnSO4 is hygroscopic (absorbs moisture from the air). Odour Threshold: Odourless Composition/Purity: Exists as anhydrous salt (ZnSO4), monohydrate (ZnSO4.H2O) and heptahydrate (ZnSO4.7H20). Zinc sulphate has many similarities (properties and hazards) to other inorganic zinc salts. /Some information in this record is given specifically for zinc sulphate. Much information applies to inorganic zinc salts in general. Physical And Chemical Properties: Molecular Weight: 161.44 (anhydrous) Conversion Factor: Not applicable Melting Point: 100 deg C (212 deg F); loses water at 280 deg C (536 deg F) Boiling Point: Does not boil. Decomposes at 500 deg C (932 deg F) Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 3.54 (anhydrous); 1.97 (hydrated) (water = 1) Solubility in Water: Very soluble (1.7 kg/L) Solubility in Other Liquids: Very soluble in glycerol (200 g/L); soluble in methyl alcohol; insoluble in ethyl alcohol. Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Not available pH Value: 4.5 (saturated solution) Vapour Density: Not applicable Vapour Pressure: Practically zero Saturation Vapour Concentration: Not applicable Evaporation Rate: Not applicable Critical Temperature: Not applicable Stability And Reactivity: Stability: Stable Hazardous Polymerization: Will not occur Corrosivity to Metals: Not corrosive [image] Uses of zinc sulphate: 1. It is used to preserve fish skin. 2. It is used as a catalyst. 3. It is used as antalkali in printing and dyeing. 4. It is used as raw material for production of inorganic pigments (such as lithopone). 5. Other zinc salts such as zinc stearate and zinc carbonate are used as preservatives for wood and leather. 6. It is used as raw material for production of lithopone and in synthetic fibre industry. 7. It is used in zinc plating. 8. It is used as a raw material in making pesticides and as a weed killer in agriculture. 9. It is used in making trace element fertilizer and feed addictive. Hazards Identifications: potential health effects -??????????- Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure ========== Inhalation: Dusts or mists (solutions) are probably non-irritating or mildly irritating. No human information is available, but inhaled zinc sulphate caused no observable toxic effects in animal tests. Reversible loss of the sense of smell may occur, based on data from animal tests.(2) Skin Contact: Zinc sulphate is not likely to cause irritation to the skin. Eye Contact: Zinc sulphate is moderately irritating to the eyes (3), but damage is normally reversible.(9) Dilute solutions of zinc sulphate have been used as astringent eye drops.(4) Ingestion: Low doses of zinc salts are probably not toxic by ingestion. An excess of zinc salts can cause vomiting, burning sensation in the throat and stomach, followed by abdominal pain, bloody diarrhoea, convulsions, changes in blood pressure and coma. Death may ensue after ingestion of a few grams, although the emetic effect of zinc sulphate (typically 0.6 to 2 g) makes severe poisoning unlikely.(3,13) First aid Measures: Inhalation: If symptoms are experienced, remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. Obtain medical advice immediately. Skin Contact: If irritation occurs, as quickly as possible, flush contaminated area with lukewarm, gently running water for at least 10 minutes, by the clock. Remove contaminated clothing, shoes, and leather goods (e.g., watchbands, belts). If irritation persists, obtain medical advice immediately. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard. Eye Contact: Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 20 minutes, by the clock, holding the eyelid(s) open. If irritation persists, repeat flushing. Obtain medical advice immediately. Ingestion: Never give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, or is unconscious or convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO not induce vomiting. Have victim drink 240 to 300 mL (8 to 10 oz.) of water. If vomiting occurs naturally, rinse mouth and repeat administration of water. Obtain medical advice immediately. note: Zinc sulfate is an emetic (can induce vomiting). First Aid Comments: Consult a physician and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact. All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a physician familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace. Equipments: 1. Bunsen burner 2. Evaporating dish 3. Gauze 4. Tripod stand 5. Zinc oxide (28 crystals) 6. Zinc hydroxide (28 crystals 7. Zinc carbonate (28 crystals 8. Sulphuric acid (1 mole) Safety: 1. I will wear protective goggles to prevent my eyes. 2. I will open all windows for good ventilation. 3. I will not inhale Zinc Sulphate. 4. I will be careful when boiling the sulphuric acid because it can boil and bubble down. 5. Sulphuric acid is corrosive and irritant so I will be careful with my skin. Planning: 1. I will keep the amount of sulphuric acid the same 1 mole for all the experiments. 2. I will work with the same amount of all types of Zincs. 3. I will remove the Sulphuric acid immediately when it boils. Method with Zinc oxide (Zno): Firstly I put 1 mole of sulphuric acid on an evaporating dish and heated it and waited for it to boil. When it boiled, I stopped heating and waited for it to cool. When it cooled, I added Zinc oxide. I stopped adding Zinc oxide when reaction stopped. I waited for the solution to cool and I dried it with a paper. After drying the solution was Zinc sulphate. Diagram: [image] Equation: Zinc oxide + Sulphuric acid è Zinc Sulphate + Water Zno + H2so4 è Znso4 + H2o Observation: I saw fumes being produced. Method with Zinc Carbonate (Znco3): Zinc carbonate is highly reactive so, I did not boil sulphuric acid. I put 1mole of sulphuric acid to an evaporating dish. Then I added Zinc carbonate till it stopped reacting. I waited for the solution to cool and I dried it with a paper. This is Zinc sulphate. Diagram: [image] Equation: Zinc carbonate + Sulphuric acid è Zinc Sulphate + Water + Carbon dioxide Znco3 + H2so4 è Znso4 + H2o + Co2 Observation: I saw fumes being produced. Method with Zinc hydroxide (ZnoH): I did not have Zinc Hydroxide so I made my own by adding water to Zinc Oxide which gave Zinc Hydroxide solution. Then I boiled 1 mole of Sulphuric acid and then I added ZnoH solution. I waited for the solution to cool. I poured the cooled solution to a paper to dry. This is Zinc sulphate. Diagram: [image] Equation: Zinc Hydroxide + Sulphuric acid è Zinc Sulphate + Water + Hydrogen [image] ZnoH + H2so4 è Znso4 + H2o + H Observation: I saw fumes being produced. Name of chemical Number of crystals Amount of sulphuric acid Colour of solution Zinc oxide 28 1 mole Chalky white solution Zinc carbonate 28 1 mole Creamy white solution Zinc hydroxide 28 1 mole Creamy solution Calculating the yield: Calculating the percentage yield Formula: 100% yield == mass of crystals made x 100 14 Mass of crystals= 28 == 28 ÷ 14 × 100 == 200% Calculating the actual yield Formula: Actual yield x 100 Theoretical yield 28 ÷ 14= 2 2 ÷ 14= 0.14? 0.14x 100= 14g Conclusion: My prediction was correct because in this experiment I have found out that Zinc Oxide is the best chemical to use while producing 14g zinc sulphate. This is because I boiled the sulphuric acid and reacted quickly. I did not boil the sulphuric acid while combining it with Zinc Carbonate because it is highly reactive. This can cause the product I will get to be under 14g because I don?t know how much water evaporated. Evaluation: Although my experiment was successful, I believe that there are a few changes which can be made to make it truer. I did not dry the solution I got because I did not have enough time. If I was to do this experiment again, I will wait for the solution to dry and see the amount of zinc sulphate produced. I would also time the reaction to see the reaction rates of the chemicals I use.

Production of Zinc Sulphate 7.5 of 10 on the basis of 2701 Review.