Diabetes

Diabetes
Diabetes is a very well known disorder. Nearly eighteen million people in the United States alone have diabetes. Diabetes is a serious illness, and there are about 1,800 new cases are being diagnosed each day. To completely understand diabetes, a person must first know how the body works with the disease and then determine which type of diabetes he/she has. There are three types of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes, Type 2 diabetes, and Gestational diabetes. There are many factors that play into the development of this disease. Type 1 diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. In Type 2 the body still makes insulin, but is not using it correctly, resulting in elevated blood sugars. Gestational diabetes occurs in pregnancy, but goes away after birth. These are the three different types of diabetes, and what type of effect they have on the body. There are many different scientists who are out there trying to come up with a cure for diabetes, and hopefully in the near future they will do so.
As stated earlier, to understand diabetes completely, one must first understand how the body works. During digestion, your body changes most of the foods you eat into glucose. Also during digestion, your body tells the pancreas to make important chemical called insulin. Insulin, like glucose enters your blood and travels to your cells. Glucose and insulin meet at your cells, where the insulin acts as a key unlocking the cells to let the glucose enter. Type 1 diabetes develops because the body destroys the beta cells in the islet tissue of the pancreas that produce insulin. The rate at which the beta cells are destroyed varies. Infants and children usually develop the disease suddenly because the beta cells are destroyed rapidly. Adults tend to develop the disease slowly because the beta cells are destroyed gradually. Occasionally, people notice diabetes symptoms after an illness, such as the flu. If they do not seek medical care quickly, the lack of insulin can cause the blood sugar level to rise much higher than normal. The body then uses fat and muscle for energy, which causes the release of ketones, or fatty acids. Once this happens the person is receptive to go into a reaction which symptoms are confusion; strong fruity breath, and drowsiness, or even coma.
Type one diabetes is usually diagnosed in younger children, but can be diagnosed at any age. Type 1 is the type of diabetes that people most often get before 30 years of age. All people with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin because their bodies do not make enough of it. Their pancreas no longer creates enough insulin to sustain life, if any at all. To live, type one diabetics must take insulin through injections or a newer method, called an insulin pump. Blood sugars are usually tested four or more times a day. Type one diabetes is not caused by being overweight, not exercising enough, or eating too much junk food. It maybe inherited, but type two diabetes in more likely to run in families. Type 1 diabetes, is a chronic illness this means that it has no cure and the symptoms persist over a long period of time.
Type 2 diabetes is more likely to run in families than type one, but science has not yet shown whether this is because families have similar lifestyles that cause this, or due to genetics. Most believe it is a combination. Type 2 diabetes is the type that is increasing. Type 2 is the type of diabetes most people get as adults after the age of 40, but you can also get this kind of diabetes at a younger age. Risk factors include a sedentary lifestyle and being overweight. Type 2 diabetes is controlled through pills, diet, and exercise. If these treatments do not work they usually resort to Insulin. Insulin is usually not the first resort for type two, but many people find they need insulin after several years with it. Monitoring is also very important. Blood sugar tests are usually done two or more times a day. There are no known effective ways of preventing it.
Gestational diabetes occurs in pregnancy. During pregnancy, your hormones make it tougher for your body to use insulin, so your pancreas needs to produce more of it. For most moms-to be, this isn?t a problem: As your need for insulin increases, your pancreas secretes more of it. But when a woman?s pancreas can?t keep up with the insulin demand and her blood glucose levels get too high, the result is gestational diabetes. Insulin may or may not be needed, but tight control is essential for a healthy birth. Gestational diabetes may be at increased risk factor for type 2 diabetes later in life. Most women with gestational diabetes don?t remain diabetic once the baby is born. Once you?ve had it, though, you?re at higher risk for getting it again during a future pregnancy and for becoming diabetic later in life. Testing may continue after birth to ensure that it really was gestational diabetes and not type one or two.
There are other blood sugar problems that may occur other than diabetes, such as hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia is considered by many to be the opposite of diabetes. It means low blood sugar. There are over a thousand causes of this. The most common ones are relative hypoglycemia, and reactive hypoglycemia. In both relative and reactive hypoglycemia the blood sugar level drops quickly after eating, resulting in a feeling of low blood sugar. In reactive hypoglycemia the level actually goes low, in relative hypoglycemia is stays normal, but drops quickly. Treatment for these two type includes diet modification and blood sugar monitoring may possibly be advised. Other types of hypoglycemia may be caused by food moving at the wrong speed through the digestive tract or too much insulin. Some people require medication or surgery to remove part of the pancreas if this type exists.
Scientist has asked them selves this question. "What if a non functioning pancreatic islet cells could be made to produce insulin once again. That would cure diabetes. The possibility has set the diabetes world excited over the past few months?ever since researchers at McGill University in Canada and the Eastern Virginia Medical School (evms) successfully regenerated islet cells in diabetic hamsters. The researchers used a mixture of proteins called llotropin to ?turn on? nonfunctional islet cells. The treatment also caused new islet cells to grow where there had been few or none. Since then, in a report in the May 1997 Journal of Clinical Investigations, the researchers have identified the gene that llotropin triggers, the one involved in regenerating the islet cells" (Eastman). This seems like great idea, and defiantly one that would work.
There was a study done in New York where they found that "Sleep disturbances appear to increase the risk of developing diabetes in men but not in women, according to a Swedish study. " There was a doctor from the University of Uppsala by the name of Dr. Lena Mallon that her along ?with associates sent questionnaires regarding sleep complaints and other possible risk factors for diabetes to a random sample of subjects who were 45 to 65 years old in 1983, and again in 1995. A total of 1187 subjects completed both questionnaires. During that interval, diabetes developed in 6 percent of women and 9 percent of men, according to a report in the medical journal Diabetes Care. After adjusting for age and other risk factors, including high blood pressure, snoring, weight and depression, the team found that the risk of diabetes was nearly three-fold higher for men who got no more than 5 hours of uninterrupted sleep a night, and nearly five times higher for men with difficulties maintaining sleep. However, sleep variables were not tied to diabetes in women in the study? (Care). The researchers said that there were many variations to why the lack of sleep, lead to diabetes. They said that ?one possibility is that poor sleep is related to activation of the stress system, another is that sleep debt may impact carbohydrate metabolism? (Care).
There was also a study done where ?researchers gave iso-1 via injection to a group of mice that were also given a chemical that induces type 1 diabetes. The study showed that the compound completely protected the mice from the disease, while mice treated only with the diabetes-inducing chemical developed type 1 diabetes. In another experiment, researchers injected iso-1 in mice that were genetically bred to develop diabetes, and the compound prevented the disease in 90% of the animals treated with the compound. Researchers say they believe the compound works by blocking a protein called mif, which appears to be involved in the inflammatory process linked to the destruction of insulin-producing cells. Because the compound is a relatively small chemical, researchers say it could be developed into a pill that could work like a vaccine to provide a lifetime of protection from diabetes for people at risk of the disease. Blood tests can identify people at risk of type developing type 1 diabetes? (Nazario). If this works this could be one of the greatest contributions to those who are suspected to have diabetes in the future. This could be very beneficiary to young kids who struggle with daily injections.
As we can see, there are many scientists on the job who are looking for cures for this disease. This disease is the third leading cause of death in the United States. The reason I wrote a paper on diabetes is because my ex-girlfriend had type 1 diabetes, and I know about the struggles of dealing with diabetes day in and day out. I have seen what can happen when she forgets to take her insulin, or the reverse affect like when she takes to much insulin. Those are scary moments if you never been around it. I?m just glad that we have people on the job that are making a difference. There are new advancements coming out everyday on ways to help people who dealing with diabetes live a better life.

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