Here is a brief overview of some of the individuals who contributed to the revolution in physics and psychology

Here is a brief overview of some of the individuals who contributed to the revolution in physics and psychology
On November 8, 1895, a German physicist named Wilhelm Roentgen accidentally discovered x-rays. He placed a vacuum tube with a wire attached to each end inside a black box, creating a discharge tube. He turned the lights off in the lab and turned on the electrical current with a very high voltage across the tube. A short distance away he noticed a glowing fluorescent light. Roentgen did not know the origin of these rays, therefore he called them "x-rays." As he continued experimenting on these rays, he discovered that the rays could penetrate books and wood. He concluded that these "x-rays" where from the discharge tube. When the discovery of x-rays was announced, stories and poems were published in magazines and newspapers. X-rays are used in many ways, such as in medicine ( CAT scans and MRI's), industry, science, etc. X-rays also have dangers and side effects such as cancer, skin burns, hair loss, and other serious conditions due to the extremely high voltage.
In 1902, Ernest Rutherford discovered that at least two types of radiation existed. He labeled these types of radiation alpha particles and beta particles. Rutherford also discovered that radiation was caused by the disintegration of atoms and suggested that immense stores of energy were present within atoms. In 1911, he announced his version of the structure of the atom. He proved that the atom has a very small, tightly packed, charged nucleus. With all of Rutherford's contributions and discoveries in science and radiation, he was president of the Royal Society, received the Copley Medal. He was also knighted and then raised to the peerage and awarded the Order of Merit.

Theories of Quantum Energy, Relativity, and Uncertainty

Revolutionary theories followed the discovery of radioactivity. Max Planck stated the theory of quantum energy. He described energy as a series of discrete quantities rather than a continuous stream. Albert Einstein contended that time and space exist as a combined continuum whose measurement depends as much on the observer as on the entities being measured. Einstein stated this in his papers on relativity. Werner Heisenberg then stated the uncertainty principle, which claimed that the behavior of subatomic particles is a matter of statistical probability.

Development of Freud's Theories

Sigmund Freud is the founder of psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysis is the method of investigating unconscious mental processes. Freud believed that thoughts, feelings, ideas, and images may interact in illogical ways while being unconscious. After using hypnosis, Freud turned to what he called free association. This allowed his patients to talk freely about themselves. His patients repeatedly associated their neurotic disturbances with childhood experiences. He observed that a child becomes emotionally attached to the opposite-sex parent, and that these attachments, fears, and fantasies influence the person in later life. Freud's most important work was his Interpretation of Dreams. This combined his theory of infantile sexuality and the psychic significance of dreams. His theory of infantile sexuality stated that human beings were sexual creatures from birth and that sexual drives exist in infants, and do not emerge at puberty. In the psychic significance of dreams, Freud believed that dreams must have scientific explanations. He concluded that dreams are expressions of unconscious wishes, desires, and drives. He states that the mind expresses certain thoughts disguised in symbols while unconscious, but the mind censors these thoughts fundamental to an individual's psychological makeup while conscious.

Freud also explained the role of importance of the human unconscious in the mind. He stated that the mind consisted of the "id," the "ego," and the "super-ego." The id includes demands for immediate drives for sexual gratification, aggression, and sensual pleasure. The ego consists of perception, thinking, and motor control. It postpones satisfaction of the id's instinctual impulses, and the ego uses a defense mechanism to defend against unacceptable impulses. The super-ego's function is to control the ego by rewarding and punishing. It is only part conscious. The super-ego represents that of parental conscience and the rules of society.

Divisions in the Psychoanalytic Movement

Sigmund Freud had attracted followers, some of whom broke apart from him. Carl Gustav Jung was among some of whom broke apart from Freud. Jung was regarded as Freud's most promising student. While Freud was integrated in the rationalism of the Enlightenment, Jung was more interested in the religious mysticism of the Romantics. According to Jung's theories, the unconscious is composed of the personal unconscious and the collective unconscious. The personal unconscious is the individual's personal experience, and the collective unconscious is that of the experience of the human race. In the collective unconscious, there is a number of archetypes, which are modes of thought, that are common to all individuals of a given country or period.

Alfred Adler and Otto Rank are two other students of Freud who developed further theories. Adler stressed that the sense of inferiority is the motivating force in human life. This causes compensatory mechanisms that result in self-centered neurotic attitudes. Rank came up with a theory of neurosis, indicating all neurotic disturbances to the trauma of birth.

The psychoanalytic movement affected work in psychology, sociology, anthropology, religious studies, history, and literary theory.

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