How to Cite Direct Quotations (APA)

How to Cite Direct Quotations (APA)
One of our goals for this blog is to convey that following the guidelines of APA Style need not restrict your flexibility as a writer. Because of space limitations, many style points illustrated in the APA Publication Manual show only one or two examples. We’re happy that the blog now allows us to provide additional examples.
Today I have an illustration of how you may write a sentence in a variety of ways and still be following perfect APA Style. All of the following citations of a direct quote are in correct APA Style, citing the author, year, and page number.
Examples
1. According to Palladino and Wade (2010), “a flexible mind is a healthy mind” (p. 147).
2. In 2010, Palladino and Wade noted that “a flexible mind is a healthy mind” (p. 147).
3. In fact, “a flexible mind is a healthy mind” (Palladino & Wade, 2010, p. 147).
4. “A flexible mind is a healthy mind,” according to Palladino and Wade’s (2010, p. 147) longitudinal study.
5. Palladino and Wade’s (2010) results indicate that “a flexible mind is a healthy mind” (p. 147).
Of course, these are just a few of the possible wordings for this sentence. Each of these examples properly cites the direct quotation, but I've varied the placement of the citation information. By changing the order of information in the sentence, I can choose what information to emphasize.
For example, because Example 2 begins with “In 2010,” you might use it if your greater context for this quote is to indicate the timeliness of the research in your literature review.
Or, you might find the quote so striking that you want to begin the sentence with it, as in Example 4, to make the most impact.
Or, you may be considering the readability and transitions from one sentence to the next. For example, if you ended the previous sentence with “Palladino and Wade,” you would probably not want to begin the next with “Palladino and Wade,” which would rule out Example 5. You might instead choose Example 2, but change the names to “they”:
This idea was recently explored by Palladino and Wade (2010). They noted that "a flexible mind is a healthy mind" (Palladino & Wade, 2010, p. 147).
I hope these examples begin to demonstrate the choices you have as an author using APA Style. More information on direct quotation of sources can be found on pages 170–174 of the Manual.
http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/page/2/

How to Cite Facebook: Fan Pages, Group Pages, and Profile Information (APA)
Although Facebook citations may not be in the Publication Manual, this blog has addressed how to cite Facebook in general (just mention the URL in text) and how to cite particular Facebook status updates (make a reference list entry) in APA Style. That advice still holds true.
Now to discuss how to cite specific information from Facebook other than status updates, such as anything on a publically viewable page (e.g., a fan page, group page, info tab, boxes tab, etc.). Here are two templates, based on the APA Style FAQ for how to cite information from a website with no author, year, or page numbers:
Username or Group Name. (n.d.). In Facebook [Page type]. Retrieved Month
Day, Year, from http://www.facebook.com/specificpageURL
• When the date is unknown, use n.d. for “no date.”
• Describe the source type inside square brackets.
Username or Group Name. [ca. 2010]. In Facebook [Page type]. Retrieved
Month Day, Year, from http://www.facebook.com/specificpageURL
• When the date can be reasonably certain but isn’t stated on the document, use a bracketed date and “ca.” (see also Example 67, p. 214).

Example Citations
Because examples make everything more fun, let’s say I am writing about the cognition skills of the great apes and I discuss Nonja, an orangutan armed with a digital camera who lives in the Vienna Tiergarten Zoo (read more about her in this Daily Mail article). Here’s a citation for her Facebook fan page:
Nonja. (n.d.). In Facebook [Fan page]. Retrieved March 17, 2010, from
http://www.facebook.com/pages/Nonja/190010092116
In my next paper about the power of nostalgia and viral marketing, I refer to the Facebook group page for When I was your age, Pluto was a planet. As of this writing it had more than 1.8 million members (and its founder has even been interviewed by NASA). Here’s a citation for the group page:
When I was your age, Pluto was a planet. [ca. 2009]. In Facebook [Group
page]. Retrieved December 16, 2009,
from http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=2207893888
For all these citations, whether to use "n.d." or "[ca. 2010]" is a judgment call and up to you, depending on the situation. And remember to double check your URLs—many pages can share the same name, so you need the right URL to tell them apart.

Private Page Citation
Because content from private or friends-only Facebook pages or profiles is not retrievable by everyone, if you cite it, it should be treated as personal communication (see section 6.20, p. 179).
http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/page/2/

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