Microbiology

Cell organelles are subunits within a cell that have their own specific function within that cell. They are known as cell organelles because they play similar roles that organs play in a body. There are many different types of cell organelles, each designed to do something specific, yet having the capability of working with the rest of the cell organelles in any given cell.
The cell capsule is a layer that lies on the outside cell wall of bacteria; as it cannot be easily removed within the cell, it can cause a variety of diseases. The cell capsule is also known as the bacterial capsule, as it prevents the bacteria from being cleaned away within the system, making sure that they do not desiccate. As they contain water, they are able to make sure that the latter possibility remains in effect.
The cell wall is a tough and flexible layer that surrounds many types of cells. It can be found outside of the cell membrane and plays the part of acting like a "pressure vessel," being able to prevent the cell from over-expanding when water enters it. They are found in plants, algae, and fungi - many organisms that need water as a part of their growth. The cell wall also filters what enters and exits the cell.
The cell membrane can be found between the cellular machinery inside the cell and the fluid that can be found outside of the cell. The cell membrane is a permeable lipid bilayer that can be found in all cells, in all types of organisms. The cell membrane acts as a type of skin, separating the intracellular components from the environment of the extracellular components. The cell membrane helps to add shape to the cell and aids in the forming of tissue.
The nucleus is the DNA provider of eukaryotic cells; in fact, the foremost function of the nucleus is to control gene expression as well as the replication of DNA during cell cycles. The structure of the nucleus allows it to control what it needs to, yet keeps itself away from the rest of the cytoplasm where it sees fit. The nucleus also contains pores that allow free movement of molecules and ions that need to pass through.
The structure of the Golgi apparatus, the organelle that helps to process proteins for secretion, contains numerous membrane-bound stacks that are known as cisternae. The purpose of the cisternae is to modify the contents that enter the organelle based on where they would reside within the cell or organism. Each stack of cisternae on the Golgi apparatus contain five functional regions, each one capable of selectively modifying the contents of the organism.
Endoplasmic reticulum are responsible for protein translation, the production and storage of glycogen and steroids, transporting the proteins that are required within the cell, among many other functions. The structure of endoplasmic reticulum is made up of a quantity of cisternae, allowing the filtering of what goes inside the organelle and what is released.
Lysosomes are organelles whose function is to digest excess or worn out organelles and engulfed bacteria and viruses. There is a membrane that surrounds the lysosomes which allow them to digest enzymes at the pH level that they require. The structure of lysosomes aid in the digesting of their contents into other, suitable cells, so their outermost layer consist of pores and other smaller tools to allow them to dispense their waste.
Secretory vesicles can be found along the cytoskeleton, as they travel the edge of the cell walls. Proteins are modified with the secretory vesicles, which are designed to suck in and release the proteins at will, once they have been modified and are ready to be released. The vesicles are able to fuse with the cell membrane, more specifically at the porosome, where it is able to dump out its contents out of the environment of the cell.
Ribosomes are "complexes of RNA and protein" that can be found in every cell. Due to the structure of the ribosome, they are often said to resemble the eukaryotic cells of bacteria,showing the interesting origin of this specific organelle. The function of ribosomes is to translate mRNA into protein that can be used within the cell. The structure of ribosomes are similar to that of bacteria, so they are capable of passing certain proteins and secretions to other parts of the cell as they see fit.
Mitochondria are membrane-enclosed organelles that are found in the majority of eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria are often called "cellular power plants" due to their ability to generate most of the cell's supply of ATP, which is used as a source of chemical energy. The structure of the organelle consists of both internal and external membranes that are composed of phospholipids bilayers and proteins. Each of these membranes contain proteins that are vital to the care for the cell, as well as for the organelle itself.
Chloroplasts are organelles that are found in any organism that conducts photosynthesis. The chloroplasts are what capture the light energy to conserve it into the typical ATP form. The structure of the chloroplasts - tiny flat discs that are contained inside an envelope consisting of an inner and outer phospholipid membrane. Within the chloroplasts are thylakoids, the sub-organelles that are used as the site for photosynthesis. The unique structure of this organelle allows it to absorb the energy and use it for its purpose without risking the chance of losing any of the precious proteins and chemicals.
Cilia are tail-like projections that serve as sensory organelles. Their structure allows them to act like cellular signaling pathways, letting alerts travel to the various parts of the organ and cell. They are capable of moving themselves or moving liquid over their own surfaces. Celia are also responsibility for a multitude of illnesses usually caused when they do not correctly transfer the cell messages, or do not allow them to travel at all.
Mesosomes play a role in the formation of cell walls and chromosome replications. They are small disks that have the ability to move within and without a bacterial cell, performing their functions involved in electron microscopy.
Nucleoids is an irregular-shaped section that contains the genetic materials within the cell of prokaryotes. Genomes reside if nucleoids, with each genome being a circular, double-stranded piece of DNA, one that may have many copies of itself at one time. The genome is stored in the nucleoid, and within that it is packed into chromatin and closed into another organelle known as the nucleus.
Flagellae are tail-like organelles that project from the cell body, and it functions by staying in motion. These cells can be many different types of organisms, such as sperm cells or any other function within the cell or organ that needs the use of these tail-like organelles to do its bidding. The structure of these organelles allows them to penetrate most membranes and cell skins.
The organisms of an animal's cells work together to perform the complex process of protein synthesis, which is the creation of proteins using DNA and RNA. The many organisms, cells, and organelles in an animal cooperate together to create to desired proteins. One organelle cannot function without the presence of another, receiving organelle. Like with any system or function within any body, all of the required cells and organelles must be present to achieve the desired results.
Some of the organelles, such as the endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes, in an animal's system allow the production, translation, and cleaning of the proteins that the animal and its cells require. Without organelles as vital as those aforementioned, the production of warrantedproteins would be impossible, if not producing something that the body cannot use to function or rid itself of.

Works Cited
Liljas, Anders. Structural Aspects of Protein Synthesis. 2004. World Scientific Publishing
Company, Inc.: New York. Tobin, Alyson. Plant Organelles: Compartmentation of Metabolism in Photosynthetic Tissue.
2008. Cambridge University Press. Tortora, Gerard. Microbiology: An Introduction. 2006. Benjamin Cummings Publishing.

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