Learning, thinking and memory

Types of learning
 Trial and error- e.g. new products. Can be facilitated by giving away trial samples.
 Classical conditioning. Examples include credits cards as conditioned stimuli, increasing product awareness to influence attitudes and the use of theme tunes in advertising; use of incentives at work.
 Operant conditioning. Examples: use of reward vouchers or points; brand loyalty issues. Share payouts and bonus payments
 Association. Examples include: experience good markets such as holidays and children learning as consumers. Bad management e.g. absenteeism & promotion
 Imitation. Examples include learning by children and the adoption of new or innovative products. Imitation of bad management practices
 Insight. Has little relevance to consumer learning but workers may suddenly realise why a difficult job is done as it is

 Positive [imagery of happy people using the product] or negative [only told when done things wrong].
 Reinforcement schedules: intermittent preferable to continuous
 Stimulus generalisation. E.g. brand loyalty.
 Stimulus discrimination. E.g. focus on product’s unique features to distinguish it from competitors
 Self-referencing. E.g. use of ‘you’ in advertising or in training programmes

Repetition and reinforcement
 Optimum exposure for advertisements
 2-3/week; 12 exposures minimum
 Mix of more and less ‘involving’ media
 Repetition may make ad appear more true or seem famous
 Primacy more important than recency for brand name
 Optimum exposure for learning to drive
 Lessons 3-4 times/week plus practice at least once per day

Who is the learner?
 Many factors are relevant to understanding the learner in work and consumer behaviour and thus segmenting the audience:
 Age, sex, motivation, incentives, expectations, learning style, prior knowledge, physical characteristics, preferred memory type, SES

What is to be learned?
 Length, difficulty, meaningfulness all relevant.
 Verbal vs. visual information:
 Contrast an ad with a lot of factual information to one with few key words
 Or how to present information in training manuals

Method of learning
 Active vs. passive learning. E.g. interactive training such as programmed learning; getting people to phone in
 Transfer of learning: of affect based on evaluative learning and of cognitive to provide ‘facts’
 Time scale for responses: e.g. for low-frequency purchase items

Learning theories
 Gestalt psychologists- principles include ‘wholeness’
 Bandura- social learning
 Pavlov and Skinner- conditioning
 Tolman- human learning is purposive

Learning styles
 Many theories of these, and some are influencing Government education policy
 Pask- serialist vs. holist
 Kolb and Honey/Mumford- four styles- active, reflective, theoretical, abstract
 Hermann- brain dominance model

Information processing and memory

 Memory theories all include:
– Input
– Sensory registers
– Short term or working memory
– Long term memory
– Response and output
 There is too much information coming in to process, so it is selectively removed
 Filters are influenced by set and expectations, motivation, perceptual defence, beliefs, personality etc.
 Coding differences between LTM and STM

 STM coding errors largely acoustic rather than visual
 LTM early verbal coding may be literal, but later involves meanings
 We store propositions based on what we have read, heard or seen but we also make inferred propositions

Information processing and retrieval
 Is there one large memory store? The theory that says this is the levels of processing model.
– Maintainance rehearsal, the rote repetition of verbal information
– Elaborative rehearsal involved deeper processing and attending to the meaning
– Shallow vs. deep processings
 Information processing involves three different memory stores is the information processing or consolidation model
 First proposed by Hebb in 1949 and says that rehearsal causes structural changes in the brain and thus LT learning is stored
 How we encode information will affect our recall.
– Automative vs. effortful processing
– Encoding specificity- .e.g elaboration during encoding can help later recall
 Mnemonics
 Peg words [e.g. remembering grocery list in shopping]
 Narrative stories [e.g. Nescafe]

Organization of LTM
 Episodic memory is autobiographical
 Semantic memory is conceptual information
 Procedural memory e.g. skills acquisition theories

 Explicit and implicit memory. Explicit is more conscious whereas implicit is vicarious.

Memory theory as applied to consumer behaviour
 Elaboration likelihood model
– Attention involves central processing rather than peripheral route
– So adverts that require concentration need to be very convincing to get people to process them centrally
 Heuristic-systematic model
– Use mental ‘short cuts’ or cognitive heuristics or…
– Systematically scan and consider available arguments or approaches

 Depends on encoding:
– Situational issues
– Meaningful to the learner
– Present and use cues:
 Verbal such as colour, typefaces, logos
 Auditory such as music
 Olfactory such as smells of food, perfume, cleaning fluids etc

 Recognition vs recall
– Recognition of cues and prompts
– Recognition superior as a memory device, but is less reliable
 Should an advertiser aim to trigger recognition or recall?
– Recall for telephone ordering
– Recognition in the shops
 Should a trainer aim to trigger recognition or recall?
– Recall for tasks performed remotely
– Recognition for lawyers

Other encoding issues
 Gender differences in encoding
– Women encode more using relationship and social cues
 Learning styles
– How we choose to learn
 E.g. reflective, abstract, experimenting, experiential [Kolb, 1980]
 Dozens of theories of learning style

Making learning meaningful
 Repetition
– 30 seconds long enough to get information into LTM
 can repeat brand name throughout a 30s ad
 Can repeat a phone number long enough to fid the phone and dial it
– Too much repetition will yield diminishing returns and may be counterproductive
 Self referencing
– E.g. “you” in adverts
 Mnemonics and chunking
– E.g. 118 118, colour codes for electrical cables
 Schemas
– E.g. patterns of learning and remembering
 Modelling
– E.g. use of celebrities- not always a successful tactic by advertisers

Perception in work and consumer psychology

precedes perception and concerns the basic senses
 vision
 hearing
 kinaesthesis
 touch
 smell
 taste

 Thresholds-
 (i) absolute
 (ii) difference
 Weber's law- jnd is a constant
 Issues:
 smell more complex than taste, used in advertising - does this marketing tactic work?
 blind-tasting experiments

Perceptual selectivity
 [a] selective exposure- framing, perceptual sets
 set influences perception-
 [a] by picking out certain high priority stimuli to gain immediate access to consciousness,

 [b] as an interpreter

 [c] perceptual defence

 [d] perceptual sensitisation
 [b] selective attention- choosing from the available stimuli which remain. Can be
 Planned
 spontaneous
 involuntary

 Set is influenced by:
 motivation
 expectancy
 reward/punshment
 age
 personality factors

Selective interpretation, perceptual categorisation and inference
 Use of LTM to aid how the material is interpreted:
 Perceptual organization-
 Gestalt principles of figure/ground; proximity; similarity; continuation; common fate; closure; symmetry. Constancies, context, set.
 Repertory Grid. Schema.
 Problems of mis-categorisation or inability to categorise new brands or products. Need to help consumers by, using exemplar strategies.
 Making judgements, attribution theory.
 Development of beliefs about products. Stimulus cues are important; inferences are made rapidly, e.g. colour, brand name, use of family branding.

Perception to attract attention
 Colour, position, relative size etc.
 Novel stimuli: logo, white space etc.
 Cues to aid recognition
 Typefaces and imagery
Maintainance of attention
 Enhance relevance to self
 Enhance curiosity
 Suspense, surprise, humour, withholding information, realism
 In marketing, USP

Other issues
 Perceptual ambiguity
 Consumer ergonomics
 Signal detection
 Atmospherics
 Perception of value
 Perception of risk
 Perception of price and value
 Price lining
 Image management
 Personal characteristics of the audience

Social perception
 Self perception and self image
 Cognitive, affective and behavioural
 These three combine to form the self image
 More integrated the self image, more consistent is behaviour
 Self image can suppress behaviour that is out of line

Maintaining and stabilising self image
 Misperception of incoming information
 Distort what was ‘seen’ to fit with self image
 Selective interaction:
 choose who you sit with or talk to
 Response evocation:
 behaving in a certain way to evoke certain responses from others
 Selective evaluation of people
 Selective evaluation of self:
 e.g. see self as unintelligent or less attractive
 Affective congruency
 Adopting and playing certain roles
 E.g. tactics in meetings
 Constancy of interaction

Interpersonal perception
 Large individual differences
 Social synchronisation
 Need to be liked
 Response biases
 Identify- associate- infer
 Dimensions of judgement [Osgood & Tannenbaum]:
 Evaluative, potency, activity

 Stereotyping: of management, of ethnic groups, of different groups of employees

Implications for discussion
 Pricing policies and perception of price
 Layout of advertising and of products in shops
 Interpersonal perception and interaction with people in meetings
 Impression management
 Perceptual mapping

Attitudes at Work
Understanding Human Behaviour in the Workplace

“The regularities of an individual’s feelings, thoughts and predispositions to act toward some aspect of their environment.” Secord and Backman (1969)

Can concern almost anything eg world, things, constructs and people.
Represent the “truth” as we see it
Components need not be consistent eg I may hate my job but think it is socially desirable and so I do not leave.
Extremity vs salience/centrality

Components of Work Attitudes

Why Might Attitudes Matter at Work?
Because attitudes to work and/or employing organisation might affect:
• Whether a person seeks a new job
• How co-operative they are with others at work
• Whether they present a positive image of the organisation to clients or customers
• How they react to change
• How hard they work (motivation)
• Their psychological or physical health

Example of Attitude Measurement
Top management in your company
Please respond to the statements below to indicate how you see your top management:
5 = strongly agree with the statement
4 = agree with the statement
3 = neither agree nor disagree with the statement
2 = disagree with the statement
1 = strongly disagree with the statement
1. Top management do their best for the company
2. Top management in this company disgusts me
3. I feel disposed to co-operate with the top management in this company

The Theory of Planned Behaviour

Factors Affecting Attitude Change
• Credibility of persuader - expertness and trustworthiness
• Attractiveness of persuader
• Sleeper effect
• Extremity of message
• Use of fear
• One-sided and two-sided arguments
• Central vs Peripheral processing

Job Satisfaction
A pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences (Locke, 1976).

Organisational Commitment - Meyer and Allen (1997)
1. Affective commitment - personal attachment to organisation
2. Continuance commitment - perception of costs and risks associated with leaving the employing
3. Normative commitment - moral dimension, obligation and responsibility to their employing

N.B. Multiple commitments can be experienced eg
location, department etc.

More complex forms of commitment
• Organizational commitment
• Commitment to professional/professional organization [e.g. BMA, Law Society, BPS]
• Commitment to Union [e.g. AMICUS, AUT]
• Commitment to department
• Commitment to boss
• Commitment to job itself

• In addition to organizational commitment, there is also commitment to:
• The professional organization e.g. BMA, Law Society, BPS
• The Union e.g. AMICUS, AUT
• The department
• The manager
• The job
• Problems arise when these commitments conflict with one another
• See work by Tom Redman & colleagues for more information on multiple aspects to commitment

Satisfaction and Commitment
Both involved in people’s decisions to stay in or leave jobs and organisations.
Both have implications for people’s general well being.
Both associated with motivation….
But not very closely connected with people’s performance in their job.
Anyway, why should people feel committed to their employer?

Organizational trust
• A complex set of attitudes, which comprises
– Trust in people [trust in management often differs to that in peers]
– Trust in terms of security [e.g. in computer systems]
– Trust in terms of organizational justice and fairness [distributive, procedural; the OTI cross refers these with CAB dimensions]

And finally, some other issues
• Attribution theory is relevant as cause and effect attributions are reflected in attitudes
• Reverse causality [Clegg, 1983] shows how attitudes might both predict behaviour and be changed afterwards to reflect it
• Specific attitudes more related to specific behaviours than are general attitudes [Foxall, 1998]


Barriers to effective communication
 Communicator issues
 Problems encoding the message
 Credibility of communicator
 Attractiveness of the communicator

Communications barriers: message issues
 Cognitive or affective appeals?
 Message interrupted by noise -neural or psychological
 Information overload
 One sided or two sided
 Primacy or recency
 Size of attitude discrepancy
 N of points and repetition
 Summarise the message

Communications barriers: audience effects
 Threatening the ego
 Resistance to persuasion:
 Self esteem
 Inner directed
 Need for social approval
 Depressed
 Strong ideological beliefs
 Internal locus of control
 Public commitment
 Mood and emotion effects
 Feedback

Communications cycle
 Information
 Encode
 Transmit
 Audience
 Decode
 Feedback

Impression management
 Ingratiation
 Opinion conformity
 Mixing agreement with disagreement
 Initial disagreement followed by agreement
 Favour doing
 Flattery
 Other enhancement
 Must be credible
 Timing, frequency and discernment important
 Self enhancement
 Find out what target thinks is attractive and adopt it
 Self promotion [to be perceived as competent rather than to be liked]
 Intimidation [to be feared]
 Exemplification [managing impression of integrity, self sacrifice & moral worthiness]
 Supplication [exploiting own weaknesses]

 Indirect IM techniques
 Use associations with positive others
 E.g. celebrity endorsements
 Acclaiming
 Explain a desirable event to give maximum desirable implications for yourself
 Non-verbal IM tactics
 Facial expressions, posture,
 TA techniques

Protective IM
 Accounts are “statements made to explain untoward behaviour and bridge the gap between actions and expectation”
 Motive talk
 Neutralisation
 Excuses and justifications
 Quasi-theories
 Aligning actions

Communications and IM cont
 Excuses
 Appeal to accidents
 Appeal to defeasibility
 Appeal to biological drives
 Scapegoating
 Justifications
 Denial of injury
 Denial of the victim
 Condemn the condemners
 Appeal to loyalties

Other protective IM behaviours
 Disclaimers and hedging
 Credentialing
 Sin licences
 Cognitive disclaimers
 Appeal to suspension of judgement
 Self handicapping
 apologies

Examples of different types of IM behaviour
• Social desirability- to make ones self appear in best light
• Social approval- to give answers that you think the other person is wanting
• Self-deceptive enhancement- to deliberately over-report good behaviour and under-report poor behaviour
• Other examples of IM behaviours
 Politicians caught in problem situations
 Mismanagement by Govt of health scares such as BSE
 Responses of industry eg Monsanto and GM foods
 Mox fuel crisis for BNF

Different types of IM behaviour
 Attributive or repudiative tactics- ascribe positive traits to self and deny existence of negative ones
 Ingratiatory behaviours
 Concern with maintenance of face
 Machiavellian behaviour
 Willingness vs unwillingness to communicate positive and negative information

 Redundancy and generative power
 Structure of language e.g. processing times for form filling
 Meaning of language differences
 Social class [Bernstein]
 Cultural differences [Argyle etc]

Non-verbal communication
 Personal space and social distance
 Reflective listening
 Non verbal cues
 Posture
 Gesture
 Gait
 Facial expressions

And finally
 Visual, audio or written?
 It depends
 Simple messages, V-A-W
 Complex messages- Written best
 Also gender differences

Motivation and emotion

 Complex area- many theories
 Theories from work and consumer bases
 Statt [1997]- buying behaviour as product of
• Ability
• Opportunity
• Motivation

Motivation theories
 Intrinsic theories
o Maslow
• Physiological- housing, clothing, food and drink
• Safety and security- burglar alarms, safety features on products
• Social, love and belongingness- gifts, team sports, greetings cards
• Self esteem- luxury goods, jewellery
• Self actualisation- education, skills development, ‘experiences’
o Alderfer
• Re-run of Maslow into three needs

 Murray’s inventory of social needs
• Including superiority, achievement, play, succourance, nurturance etc.
 Arousal theory
• Failure to arouse will have little effect
• Priming to create arousal
 Theory X and theory Y and theory Z
• Relevant insofar as makes statements which are general enough to apply in both work and consumer worlds

Incentive and reinforcement theories
 Studies of role of money
• Instrumentality
• Indicative of status
• Provides some independence and autonomy
 Based on principles
• Perceives reward to be worth the effort
• Wants that reward
• Perceives that action will lead to that reward

Utility and related theories
 Based on nature of utility, usually a product of value and probability, of both success and loss; e.g. consumers perception of risk related to losses
• function, money, social, psychological, appearance, injury
 Need for achievement
• nAch and fear of failure
 Need for affiliation
 Need for power
 Equity theory
 Motivational calculus and expectancy theory

Modern intrinsic theories
 Cognitive evaluation theory
 Curiosity, incongruity and discrepancy
 Competence, mastery, efficacy and challenge
 Personal control over environment and self-determination

Factors influencing motivation
 Mood states
 Atmospherics
 Retail environment
 Interactions with sales personnel

Other motivational issues
 Unconscious motivation
• Products as substitutes and fulfillments
• Reinforcing needs that one is not aware of
• Semiotics and the meaning of goods, logos,, symbolism and ritual gift giving

 Transient, ephemeral nature means less well investigated
 Probably 7 main emotions
• Anger, sadness, disgust, fear, surprise, happiness and contempt
 Concept of EI
• Emotionality, self awareness, empathy, motivation and drive, long/short term orientation


 Authority
 Traditional
 Charismatic
 Legal-rational
 Power
 Referent
 Expert
 Gatekeeper
 Reward
 Legitimate
 Coercive
 Leadership
 Transactional
 Transformational
 Management
 Style is personality-based and relatively unchanging
 Skills can be acquired
Leadership studies
 The trait ‘great man’ approach
 Personality
 Authoritarian or democratic
 Skills approach
 Communications
 Delegating
 Empathy
 Style approach
 Authoritarian
 Democratic
 Laissez-faire
 Contingency approach
 Leader-member relations
 Amount of task structure
 Leader’s position power


 Social facilitation and social loafing
 Groupthink
 Deindividuation [like a mob]
 Group membership and norms
 Polarisation and risky shift
 Group dynamics and team organization
 Decision making and negotiation


Culture and structure in organizations
Beliefs and attitudes
Reflected in practices, rules and procedures
Culture types:

Studying culture
Excellence approach
Human relations approach
Behaviour and process approach
Systems approach
Contingency approach
Management gurus

Factors affecting choice of culture
History and ownership
Goals and objectives

Organizational activities
Steady state

Organizational development
Western value-based technique
Aims to improve organization’s ability to solve problems, become more efficient and renew itself
Aligning personal goals and organizational goals
Theory x, theory y and theory z


Short term, long term
Adaptive or new
Wide or limited implementation
Can it be discontinued?
Susceptibility to successful modification
Consequences of doing it or not

Change issues
Resistance to change
Parochial self interest
Misunderstanding and lack of trust
Contradictory assessments and viewpoints
Low tolerance of change

Barriers and responses to change
Responses can include fear, resentment, insecurity etc.,

Overcoming resistance to change
Education and communications
Participation and involvement
Facilitation and support
Negotiation and agreement
Negative measures
Manipulation co-opting
Coercion [power or force]- explicit or implicit

Planning and implementing change
Defining the problem
Historical background
Environment [eg culture]
Organization structure
Organizational processes
Individual characteristics
Rationalistic bias
Poorly defined change goals
Poorly defined problem
Over-emphasis on individuals
Technocratic bias- emphasise the change and not the plan for implementation

Cross-cultural issues in Management

Geert Hofstede
• Dutch social anthropologist
• Obtained attitude data from IBM worldwide in late 1970s
• Factor analysed and looked for factors which differentiated nationalities
• Data on 50 countries, but only sufficient N for 40 in first book
• Originally four main factors
• Masculinity femininity
• Ambition and desire to achieve versus social concern and interpersonal relationships
• Power distance
• Amount of power that can be wielded
• Uncertainty avoidance
• inflexibility
• Individualism- collectivism
• Help and commitment versus high personal achievement
• and later added [in 1990s]
• LT-ST orientation [Confucian dynamism]
• Issues:
• Study was based in 1970s and many countries have changed a lot since then- has this affected their orientation?
• Eastern European changes
• Some developing countries are now developed
• Others have changed politically- e.g. South Africa
• Issues:
• All countries will have changed anyway in nearly 30 years
• Changes in technology and global communication
• Migration of peoples
• Are cross-cultural differences still as pronounced?
• Issues:
• This study put cross-cultural differences into the mainstream rather than “error variance” in other studies
• Encouraged other theorists, e.g. Trompenaars
• Recent developments with studies all over the world have increased considerably the number of countries that have been mapped

Trompenaars 7 factors
• Universalism versus particularism
– Work relationships mixed with personal ones
• Individualism versus collectivism
• Affective versus neutral culture
• Specific versus diffuse relationships
– Distinct relationships versus diffuse ones
• Achieving versus ascribing status
– Earned through achievement or recognised through, e.g. age
• Perception of time
– Sequential or parallel
• Relating to nature

Other dimensions from indigenous social psychology
• China
– Confucian values
• Filial piety
• Industriousness
• Giving and protecting face
– Guanxi
• Social networking crucial to business relationships
– Ren ching
• Respectful exchange of gifts, favours and obligations
• Japan
– Amae and respect
• Reliance and dependence upon indulgent love of an older person
– Kanban
• Concept of whole transcending sum of parts
– Ringi
• Upward communications and decision making
– Sacred treasures-
• life time employment, seniority, enterprise unions/families
– Harmony and cooperation [‘wa’]
– Gakureki Shakai
• Social system attaching value to education
• Africa
– Cognitive tolerance
– Not on seat
– Africa time
– Indaba [Malawi]
– Ubuntu [Malawi]
– Tribal loyalty
– Power and respect based on experience
– Managers ‘right to manage’
• Several cultures resent ‘intrusiveness’ of western values, western research methods, e.g.
– Philippines
– Sub-Saharan Africa
• Latin American countries: emphasis on
– Respect
– Family
– Hierarchy
– Honour
– Affiliative obedience
– Cultural rigidity
– Machismo
– Sympatia
• India
– Detachment as a coping mechanism, therefore working hard is unrelated to success or failure
– Ingratiation techniques to advance personal goals within hierarchical collective context
• [similar to parts of western Africa]

Example area1 : Expatriate workers
• Qualities for success hard to define, e.g. Brislin [1981]
– Cognitive ability
– Task orientation
– Tolerant personality
– Strength of personality, include self esteem
– Relations with others, include empathy
– Potential to benefit from cross-cultural experience, including openness to change

Expatriate worker qualities
• Mendenhall and Oddou [1985]
– Self-orientatedness
• Self esteem, Self confidence, Mental adjustment
– Other orientatedness
• Ability to interact and develop relationships
– Perceptual factors
• Empathy, being non-judgemental
– Cultural toughness
• Ability to adjust to very different culture

Expatriate training
• Hofstede suggests:
– Awareness
– Additional knowledge
– skills
• Training methods
– Cultural assimilators
– Cultural analysis systems
– Contrast [American] method train in opposites

Expatriation success or failure measures
• Expatriation satisfaction and rate of early returns
• Expatriate adaptation and adjustment
• Expatriate job performance
• Determinants of above include
– Adjustment of spouse and family
– Developing specific coping strategies
– Accurate understanding of rules, customs, behaviours and attributions
– Being able to tolerate cultural differences with which Expatriate may totally disagree

Example 2 : Theory Z
• Application of Japanese management principles to American and British businesses
• Long term focus
• Zero tolerance
• Personal responsibility for self-development
• Positive attitudes to seniority
• Teamwork rather than individual achievement
• Commitment and trust
• Quality and pride
• Multi-skilling

Example 3: R & S
• Issues include:
– Gender inequalities, especially in ‘masculine’ societies [e.g. poorer promotion prospects for women in Japan, France, etc]
– Specific types of favouritism, but not considered nepotism in those cultures, e.g.
• China
• India
• Sub-Saharan Africa
• Differences in emphasis on methods, e.g.
– Assessment Centres and Biodata
– Graphology
– References
• And in selection criteria
– Team member opinions
– Same tribal group
– Word of mouth

Hrm 8.5 of 10 on the basis of 2293 Review.