Types of Essay Formats–Essential Elements of Essay Writing

Types of Essay Formats–Essential Elements of Essay Writing
Types of Essay Formats – Learn the Four Main Types
There are mainly four types of essay formats which are followed for the various types of academic essay writing like research paper writing, term paper writing etc. Essay format is an essential element in the chapter of essay writing and without it, an essay written would be incomplete and therefore of no use.
The different types of essay formats are:
Harvard – The font style followed is Times New Roman and font size is 12 points with double spacing, computer generated on a standard white paper 8.5 inch x 11 inch. Here the in -text citation contains the author’s name and date of publication. Where the date of publication is not know it is referred as ‘n.d’ and where the author is not known it is ‘anon’. The complete and details of citations are given at the end page under bibliography.
In case of a book it is cited as follows : author, year of publication, the name of the book, edition, volume, place and name of the publisher.
In case of journals it is: name of author, year of publication, name of article, name of journal, volume, page numbers.
Chicago format consists of two types. The old style is followed for history and humanities and is known as “notes and bibliography”. In this case the bibliography is given along with the note in the essay or at the end of the article in a group form. The first line of each note is indented two spaces. At the end of the essay another bibliography which contains the name of each work cited and also works which were used as references but not cited. The new style is known as the “author date” style and is used for the science stream generally. Here the in-text citation contains the name of the author and the date of publishing and at the end the bibliography gives the details as in the older format. Here the font type is Times New Roman and font size is 12 points with double spacing on a standard white paper 8.5 inch x 11 inch.
In the MLA format, printout is taken in a standard white paper (8.5inch by 11inch). The writing is in Times New Roman preferably and font size is 12point, with double spacing. There should be a margin of 1 inch on all sides. A header must be created with surname of the writer followed by a space and then the page numbering in the upper right hand corner. While starting the essay the first line of the paragraph should be indented to one half inch or 5 spaces from left (press tab button 5 times). This should be followed each time while starting a paragraph. After each punctuation mark a space should be left. For the cover or title page instructions should be strictly followed and a title page should not be created unless otherwise specified. In the upper left hand corner of the cover page the writer’s name with the surname first followed by instructor’s name, subject and the date should be given with double spacing format. The title should be in title case, at the center and without any quotation marks whatsoever. There should be double spacing between the title and the first line of the research paper. For the main body of the essay citations should be always within quotation marks and italics should be used for long titles. In –text- citations are also very important and the author’s name and the page number from which the quotation or idea is taken are immediately given after the quotation. Endnotes, if any, should be written separately at the end but before the reference page. For the reference page:
In case of book reference- Surname of the author. Name of the book. Date of publishing. Name of the publishing company. The page numbers from where the quotations were taken.
In case of journal reference – Author. Name of the article. Name of the journal. Date of publishing. Page number
In case of net reference – site name. Date of publishing. Name of the affiliated university or organization. Date of when you visited the site.
In the APA format writing parameters are the same as MLA except for some minor differences. In APA format the header will consist of 2 -3 words of the title of the essay followed by 5 spaces and then the page number. The APA format essay will have four main parts – the title or cover page, an abstract, the main body of the essay and the bibliography at the end. The title page will have a running head consisting of the full heading, name of the writer and the university. The abstract will be a summary of the whole essay in not more than 120 words in a double spaced single paragraph. In-text–citations are also important and in this case the last name of the author and the year of publication are given.
In case of book reference – last name of the author, initials of the first name of the author (year of publication). Name of the book. City or location. Name of the publisher.
In case of journals – last name of author, initials of the first name of the author (year). Name of the article. Name of the journal. Volume number. Pages.
In case of net reference – last name of author, initials of the first name of the author (year). Name of the article. Name of the on line journal. Retrieved on date from
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Types of essay formats are important parameters for a writer to know, so that he can write the perfect essay. The citations and references based on these essay formats are important for direct quotations within the essay to avoid charges of plagiarism. There are available many sample essays or essay examples for a student to browse through and know the formats correctly.


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