Interpretation of Financial Statements

Interpretation of Financial Statements
Horizontal analysis involves a line by line comparison of one set of data with another ? for example, the current year?s accounts with last year?s, or with this year?s budget. It is based on the fact that isolated figures are seldom of much use by themselves. Trend analysis is horizontal analysis extended over several years, often indexing the data to express the first set of figures as 100 and later periods related to that base. For example, profit is £10,000,000. Is this good or bad? (a) Profit for the previous 4 years was: £6,000,000 £7,000,000 £8,000,000 £9,000,000 (b) Profit for the previous 4 years was: £14,000,000 £13,000,000 £12,000,000 £11,000,000 ? Profit for the previous 4 years was: £10,000,000 £10,000,000 £10,000,000 £10,000,000 The comparison shows fairly clearly how the company is doing ? but even this can be improved upon. One way is to calculate the percentage increase/decrease from year to year: (a) 16.7% 14% 12.5% 11% (b) -7% -7.7% -8.3% -9% ? 0% 0% 0% 0% Using indexation: (a) 100 117 133 150 167 (b) 100 93 86 79 71 ? 100 100 100 100 100 vertical analysis

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Marketing Strategy for Nintendo Gamecube

Marketing Strategy for Nintendo Gamecube
This unit entitled ?Marketing? requires me to produce a marketing strategy for a new or existing product. The product that I have chosen to devise a strategy for is the forthcoming video games console, ?Nintendo Gamecube?, which is released in Europe on May 3rd 2002. I will have to carry out research about the principles of marketing; the way that close competitors will compete when the console is released; the strength of the brand name; possible marketing models/strategies; analysing the possible implications of external influences, etc. in order to produce a powerful strategy that will ensure that the product will do well in its market. obtaining information Information that will help me to complete this report can be obtained from a number of different ways. Some obvious methods that will be used throughout the report for obtaining data and information towards the formation of the marketing strategy are: ? The Internet: this method has become one of the most popular in finding information since there are many search engines available on the Internet as well as websites of the Nintendo company itself and many other sites designed by fans and video game players from around the world. The information provided is secondary data, but it can be very informative on enriching my knowledge about Nintendo?s console and marketing via the abundant sites devoted to Business Studies such as Biz/ed (www.bized.ac.uk) and Business Teacher (www.businessteacher.co.uk). ? Primary data: this type of data can be collected through observation and by carrying out primary research methods such as questionnaires, telephone interviews and personal interviews.

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Cadbury Limited Business Plan

Cadbury Limited Business Plan
Cadbury Limited is a wholly owned subsidiary of Schweppes plc. It produces the finest quality confectionery; chocolate, sweets, cakes, drinks, yoghurts, ice creams and promotional material for all its products. Cadbury Limited was first located in the middle of England, Birmingham. Then merged with Schweppes and formed new sites. - Bournville, Birmingham - Somerdale (near Bristol) - Chirk, (North Wales) - Marlbrook (Herefordshire) - Minworth (Birmingham) - London - Belfast - Paisley It currently employs 4,000 employees, each working in many different departments within the company. Its mission statement is "Cadbury Schweppes governing objectives is to maximise returns to shareholders. In support of this, Cadbury Ltd. Aims to be Clearly The Best and be seen to be Clearly The Best by consumers, competitors and share owners. 80% of employees own shares through various share ownership/share save schemes". Cadbury?s confectionery is available in a wide variety of retail outlets, form traditional ctn (confectionery, tobacconist and newsagent) and grocery trade to leisure centres, garages, diy outlets and off licences, with well over 150,000 places able to cater for the British passion for chocolate.

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Producing a Marketing Strategy

Producing a Marketing Strategy
I need to produce a marketing strategy for a new or existing product. I have chosen Centrica/British Gas plc and I will produce a marketing strategy for its main products: gas and electricity. The marketing strategy will include evidence and information about: 1. How the strategy is based on the principles of marketing. 2. How I used sources of primary and secondary marketing information. 3. How I analysed the impact of the external environment on my marketing decision. 4. How I analysed the marketing context and decided on an appropriate strategy. 5. How I developed a coherent mix of strategies to meet consumer needs. 6. An evaluation of the reliability of the differing marketing models used. ?Marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives". This definition stresses the importance of beneficial exchanges that satisfy objectives of both those who buy and those who sell goods and services.

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Bricolage: A Woman's Use of Canonical Ideology

Bricolage: A Woman's Use of Canonical Ideology
In chapter one of The Savage Mind, Claude Leví-Strauss explains bricolage as a way of understanding the structure of mythical thought in ?savage? societies. The term bricoleur can be used practically, to represent a kind of craftsman though Leví-Strauss brings the word to an analytical level, and it is with this level that we are concerned. The bricoleur?s ?universe of instruments is closed and the rules of his game are always to do with `whatever is at hand??2 so, as a craftsman, he is conservative and ecological. He works from within a structure in order to build out of it: ?the materials of the bricoleur are elements which can be defined by two criteria: they have had a use?. and they can be used again either for the same purpose or for a different one if they are at all diverted from their previous function.?3 For more information on this chapter, ?The Science of the Concrete?, click here. In this paper, I will examine this concept as it applies to certain patterns and ideas that exist in canonical American ideology and literature in the nineteenth century and how its double nature presents an opportunity for those ?marginal? or ?other? Americans. In examining this, the American writer will be considered a sort of craftsman.

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United States Foreign Policy Toward Jewish Refugees During 1933-1939

United States Foreign Policy Toward Jewish Refugees During 1933-1939
In reviewing the events which gave rise to the U.S.?s foreign policy
toward Jewish refugees, we must identify the relevant factors upon which such
decisions were made. Factors including the U.S. government?s policy mechanisms,
it?s bureaucracy and public opinion, coupled with the narrow domestic political
mindedness of President Roosevelt, lead us to ask; Why was the American
government apathetic to the point of culpability, and isolationist to the point
of irresponsibility, with respect to the systematic persecution and annihilation
of the Jewish people of Europe during the period between 1938-1945?

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Nuclear Warfare - America Needs Nuclear Weapons

Nuclear Warfare - America Needs Nuclear Weapons
After much research and discussion I have decided to bring up the constant and ever rising conflict of nuclear warfare and why we need to keep our nuclear weapons.I believe very strongly that we need to keep, test, and build nuclear weapons, people will say that we need to keep a peaceful world and ban all nuclear weapons. The people that talk like that are simply ignorant; because if there is ever any kind of nuclear war or any type of superior threat that needs to be dealt with strongly and promptly nuclear force is most likely going to be the most tactical and reasonable choice.If all the test ban treaties ever written were to come into effect our nation would be in serious danger. Due to the simple fact that everybody else would advance in the world of nuclear technology why we are over here sitting on our sorry asses trying to make the world a better place for plants, animals, and ourselves. I believe either our nation is incredibly ignorant or they are not telling the public everything the amendment grants to us. I strongly believe that if we knew everything that was going on in the world of nuclear warfare, the opinions of very many people would change.

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Relationship Between Weight and Height

Relationship Between Weight and Height
My School is a secondary school and is of mixed genders from ages 11 to 17 plus a 6th from which has students of 17-19years. The school is based in the country side near to several small towns and villages, most of the students around the area come to this school. Preliminary Investigation I have decided to investigate the following fields; Weight and Height. I have decided upon these two values because I am curious if there is any connection between them, as I know many people my age which are around my weight but which are a lot shorter than me. The fields I have chosen to investigate are both forms of continuous data, in contrast to data that is known as discreet, for example, Gender or Favourite sport. Discrete data usually occurs in a case where there are only a certain number of values, or when we are counting something (using whole numbers). Continuous data makes up the rest of numerical data. This is a type of data that is usually associated with some sort of physical measurement, in this case, height and weight.

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Newspaper Analysis

Newspaper Analysis
Aim I plan to investigate which newspaper out of the; Sun Daily Express Times offer the easiest read. I will measure readability by looking at the length of word whilst working on the basis that the longer the word, the harder it is to read. I will also compare the content and cost of each newspaper to see which appeals to the largest audience. Preliminary Tests: In order to determine whether or not further tests would be worth while I shall conduct a simple comparison of the front of the three papers. By taking the first 5 words from each story and plotting the mean on a simple bar graph, I should be able to see a significant difference in word length. Paper Word Length The Times The archbishops of Canterbury and 3 11 2 10 3 The Daily Express Millions of home owners were 8 2 4 6 4 The Sun They got the hump after 4 3 3 4 5 By working out the mean world length for each, we can determine which the harder read is. [image] Paper Mean Word Length The Times 5.8 The Daily Express 4.8 The Sun 3.8 It is immediately evident that the mean word length steadily reduces as you travel from top to bottom end newspapers. This means that further investigations are most definitely worth while, not only in this field, but also within each paper over the different sections. After conducting my preliminary investigations, I have deemed it worth while to further investigate the statistics of each newspaper and make comparisons as to which one offers the harder read. However, in order to be provided with the most accurate results, I must utilise a suitable sampling technique that ensures a selection of random words. In order to do this I will use the random number generator on my calculator to produce the numbers that can the correspond to the word. This can be done as follows:

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An Analysis and Evaluation of Practical Investigative Assessment

An Analysis and Evaluation of Practical Investigative Assessment
What you test is what you get. In the quest for accountability usingthe tool of assessment inevitably results in a tailoring of teachingto the required assessment. The pressure is on to teach the skillsthat can be counted and reported, but just how useful are theseskills? Assessment in school science as with other subjects can takemany forms from oral questioning to the marking of exercises set forhomework or short written tests of knowledge. Most often we think ofassessment in the context of public examinations such as the gcse andthe A-Level. Much of the media attention and political commentaryplaces enormous faith in the ability of examination systems to giveabsolute answers. Indeed educationalists have identified governmentpolicy as that of an ?empty commitment? (Black and William page5,1998). Whilst the tgat have publicly emphasised the importance offormative assessment the reality is that resources and politicalpolicy is clearly focused on the external testing of teachers andschools. Undoubtedly the national curriculum has increased the amountof testing.

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