The Use And Abuse Of History

The Use And Abuse Of History"Incidentally, I despise everything which merely instructs me without increasing or immediately enlivening my activity." These are Goethe?s words. With them, as with a heartfelt expression of Ceterum censeo [I judge otherwise], our consideration of the worth and the worthlessness of history may begin. For this work is to set down why, in the spirit of Goethe?s saying, we must seriously despise instruction without vitality, knowledge which enervates activity, and history as an expensive surplus of knowledge and a luxury, because we lack what is still most essential to us and because what is superfluous is hostile to what is essential. To be sure, we need history. But we need it in a manner different from the way in which the spoilt idler in the garden of knowledge uses it, no matter how elegantly he may look down on our coarse and graceless needs and distresses. That is, we need it for life and action, not for a comfortable turning away from life and action or merely for glossing over the egotistical life and the cowardly bad act. We wish to use history only insofar as it serves living. But there is a degree of doing history and a valuing of it through which life atrophies and degenerates.

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Boots the Chemist

Boots the Chemist
Over the past three decades Boots has continued to develop product ranges, many of which are now household names. Boots has also introduced new services. Boots Opticians, formed in 1987 has become one of the UK?s leading chains of opticians. Insurance services, and initiatives in dentistry, chiropody, ?Boots for Men? stores and Internet services were introduced in 1999. The first Health and Beauty Experience stores, offering services such as homeopathy, osteopathy and a range of beauty treatments, were opened in autumn 2000. Boots Healthcare International exports healthcare products in more than 130 countries round the world. Boots Health and Beauty stores are now established in Ireland, Thailand, Japan and Taiwan. There are eight different businesses in The Boots Company, different in size, different in type and different in their business cultures. Such diversity means that they have unrivalled career opportunities in a wide variety of disciplines for people who deliver excellent performance. Boots is a learning organisation, they encourage their people to strive to improve their skills and develop throughout their careers.

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A Presentation of a Marketing Strategy for a Product

A Presentation of a Marketing Strategy for a Product
The aim of the report is to produce a marketing strategy for a new or existing product. I have chosen to base this report on Cosmopolitan, a successful woman?s monthly magazine. I have chosen this because it has a loyal readership and is currently market leader in its field. Women?s Monthly Periodicals Adults Mens Womens (000s) (%) (000s) (%) (000s) (%) Cosmopolitan 1915 4.1 331 1.5 1585 6.6 Marie Claire 1690 3.6 223 1 1467 6.1 Vogue 1272 2.7 259 1.1 1013 4.2 Elle 951 2 131 0.6 820 3.4 New Woman 660 1.4 46 0.2 613 2.6 Red 585 1.3 52 0.2 533 2.2 Above is a copy of the current readership figures for the UK?s top Health, Beauty and Lifestyle Woman?s monthlies. As the figures show, while there is a large gap between the readership figures for Cosmopolitan and its closest rival (Marie Claire), the only way to make sure that Cosmopolitan will remain market leader in the future is to continue to widen that gap. Therefore, my marketing aim is to continue to increase the market share

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Khrushchev's Attempts at Modernisation

Khrushchev's Attempts at Modernisation
1999: In what ways did Khrushchev carry out his policy of de-Stalinisation in the Soviet Unionin the 1950?s? (10) 2000: Describe the key features of de-Stalinisation. (6) In March 1953 Stalin died. He had ruled the Soviet Union for twenty-five years. A period of collective leadership followed until 1956 when Nikita Khrushchev appeared as the new Soviet leader. In that year Khrushchev gave his secret speech to the twentieth party conference. In this three hour speech he roundly condemned the terror of Stalin?s regime and the cult of personality which had grown up around him. Stalin acted not through persuasion, but by imposing his concepts and demanding absolute submission to his opinion. Whoever opposed this concept was doomed to physical annihilation. Mass arrests and deportations of thousands of people, execution without trial, created conditions of insecurity, fear and even desperation.

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Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud
Many believe Freud to be the father of modern psychiatry and psychology and the only psychiatrist of any worth. He is certainly the most well known figure, perhaps because sex played such a prominent role in his system. There are other psychologists, however, whose theories demand respectful consideration. Erik Erickson, born Eric Homburger, whose theories while not as titillating as Freud?s, are just as sound. This paper will compare the two great men and their systems. In addition, this paper will argue that Freud offers the more useful foundation for understanding the Jenny Masterson?s confused psyche.
Sigmund Freud showed signs of independence and brilliance well before entering the University of Vienna in 1873. He had a prodigious memory and loved reading to the point of running himself into debt at various bookstores. Among his favorite authors were Goethe, Shakespeare, Kant, Hegel and Nietzsche. To avoid disruption of his studies, he often ate in his room.

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The Rise and Fall of the Ottoman Empire

The Rise and Fall of the Ottoman Empire
Main Dates of the Ottoman Empire ======== b Ca. 1243: Turkish Nomads settle in Asia Minor b 1299-1326: Osman I b 1301: Osman I declares himself sultan and creates the Ottoman Empire b 1345: Seljuk Turks first cross the Bosporus straight, which divides Asia and Europe. b 1389: The Ottomans defeat the Serbs in Kosovo. b 1402: Tamerlane defeats the Ottomans at Ankara, now capital of Turkey. b 1451-81: Mohammed the Conqueror. b 1453: Ottomans conquer Constantinople, formerly Byzantium, and renamed the city Istanbul and capital of the Empire until 1922. b 1520-1566: Sulayman II the magnificent b 1526: The Battle of Mohacs. b 1529: First Siege of Vienna. b 1571: Combined forces from Vienna, Spain, Genoa, Venice and the Papal States crush the Ottoman fleet at the battle of Lepanto. b 1641-1687: Mohammed IV b 1656-1676: Vizierial reforms. b 1683: Second Siege of Vienna. b 1703-1730: Cultural revival under Ahmed iii. b 1774: Treaty of Kucuk Kaynarca. b 1792: Treaty of Jassy. (The Romanian city of IaÅŸi.) b 1793: Selim iii declares a ?New Order?. b 1798-1799: Napoleon attempts to conquer Egypt. b 1804: First Serbian uprising. b 1815: Second Serbian uprising. b 1822-1830: Greek War of independence. b 1826: Massacre of Janissaries, when the Sultan?s personal guard revolted against the decision to create a regular force. b 1827: Ottoman and Egyptian fleets sunk at Navarino by a combined English, French and Russian fleet. b 1829: Treaty of Adrianople. b 1839: Hatt-i Serif of Gulhane; the Tanzimat Period begins. b 1841: The Straits convention. b 1853-1856: The Crimean War. b 1876: The Ottoman Constitution is proclaimed. b 1878: Serbia and Montenegro are given independence and Bulgaria broad autonomy at the Congress of Berlin. b 1908: Congress of Union and Progress is formed. b 1908: Ottoman constitution restored. b 1908: Austria annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina. b 1912-1913: First Balkan War. b 1913: Second Balkan War. b 1914: The Ottoman Empire joins WW1 as one of the central powers. b 1919-1924: End of the Empire. b 1923: Sultanate is abolished and Turkey becomes a republic. b 1924: Office of Caliph abolished.

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Report on Memec

Report on Memec
Founded in 1974 Memec are a leading global semiconductor distributor. They specialize in demand creation and servicing the electronics industry. They are a large company with more than 2,400 employees, including 1,800 field application engineers (FAE?s), technical sales specialists, technical marketing professionals and account representatives. Even though they are not a publicly known company, they are very well industry known and sell to companies such as Sony, Motorola, Hitachi and Siemens, as well as buying from companies such as Ericsson, Intel, Sanyo, and nec. Unique Memec is a branch of Memec, as well as Insight and Impact, but this report will look at Unique. Unique was created to further realize Memec?s technical focus of promoting a limited number of complementary semiconductor manufacturers. With their team of highly trained field application engineers Unique can specialize in providing their customers with the best they possibly can, ensuring they are pleased and continue to work with them.

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Kenneth Branagh's Love's Labour's Lost

Kenneth Branagh's Love's Labour's Lost
In our teaching of Shakespearean film adaptation to undergraduates, one of the issues that frequently arises in class discussions is the question of how the visuality of the cinematic medium is constructed in tension against the verbal nature of Shakespeare?s dialogue. The tension between the visual and verbal dimensions of filming Shakespeare is created on two levels: firstly, where the poetry of Shakespeare, functioning as word pictures that stimulate and enhance the imagination of the spectator is set against the capacity of film to show rather than tell; and secondly, where the adaptation negotiates with the canonicity of the Shakespearean text through the mode of the popular.1 One recent example is Baz Luhrmann?s Romeo + Juliet (1996) in which the play was made to compete radically with what has been called Luhrmann?s ?mtv?-inspired editing, pacing and styling. 2 Another is Branagh?s Hamlet (1996), where the concentrated effort to retain every single line of the play created its own burden of visualisation.3 The creative energy of a Shakespearean film adaptation is often sustained by the dynamic of creating a visual track to ?match? the play?s dialogue; in other words, by the question of what images can be used to animate or do ?justice? to Shakespeare?s text.

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The Design Argument for the Existence of God

The Design Argument for the Existence of God
Design arguments are A posteriori and inductive ? they seek to move from facts about the world to God and can only establish a level of probability never a philosophical proof. Early forms of the argument were put forward by Socrates and Plato (cf the Phaedo). There are various types of argument. 1. teleological arguments ? Arguments from a general pattern of order in the Universe- arguments qua regularity 2. teleological arguments ? Arguments which seek to show that the universe has direction and a goal -qua purpose 3. the argument from beauty Old forms of teleological argument tend to rely on arguments qua purpose and modern teleological arguments tend to rely on arguments qua regularity. Older forms often rely on analogy, such as those given by Aquinas and Paley. early teleological arguments ? qua purpose -???????????????????? St. Thomas Aquinas (1224-75) AquinasÂ? fifth Way is a form of the teleological argument: Â?Goal directed behaviour is observed in all bodies obeying natural laws, even when they lack awareness?But nothing lacking awareness can tend to a goal except it be directed by someone with awareness and understanding; the arrow, for example, requires an archer.

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Modern Witchcraft

Modern Witchcraft
Many witches do not believe in spirits, and most if not all reject belief in a literal Devil or demons. Naturally, therefore, they reject the idea that sorcery and divination are accomplished by the agency of evil spirits. Many offer naturalistic explanations for the working of magic and divination and other ?psychic technologies.? On the whole, the occult community today has expanded its definition of ?the natural? to incorporate elements that were earlier considered supernatural, placing them in the category of the super- or paranormal instead. Yet, they are still involved in the ?old ways? ? that is, the occult.

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