A Study Investigating the Effects of Categorisation on Recall

A Study Investigating the Effects of Categorisation on Recall
. Introduction Background research The cognitive approach to psychology studies the processes the mind uses to deal with information and looks at areas such as language, learning, perception and memory. Cognitive psychologists commonly use models to explain information flow. These models are abstract ways of representing how the mind deals with information rather than defining separate areas of the brain for each aspect of memory. The information processing model uses the analogy of a computer system ? information is received and processed in various ways by the mind before being passed into memory. Within the study of memory, there are three main processes: Encoding> Storage> Retrieval Encoding is the process of perceiving and understanding input. Storage is the way in which we commit information to memory

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Investigating the Effect of Copper Sulphate on Amylase Activity

Investigating the Effect of Copper Sulphate on Amylase Activity
The aim of my experiment is to observe the affect on amylase when adding copper sulphate to a starch solution. Introduction Enzymes are that act as catalysts, in other words they increase the rate of chemical reactions. Consider the following general reaction between two substances, A and B, which react together to form a product, substance C: A + B = C In biological systems, this reaction might occur very slowly, or not at all, in the absence of an enzyme. Enzymes will greatly increase the rate of formation of the product. They can increase the rate of reactions by a factor of at least one million. Most enzymes are large protein molecules, with complex three-dimensional shapes. Enzymes increase the rates of reactions by reducing the free energy of activation, so that the barrier to a reaction occurring is lower in the presence of an enzyme. The combination of enzyme and substrate creates a new energy profile, for the reaction, with a lower free energy of activation. Once the products have been formed, they leave the active site of the enzyme, which is left free to combine with a new substrate molecule. Enzymes, like chemical catalysts, are not used up in the reaction they catalyse so they can be used over and over again.

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Investigating Cannabis

Investigating Cannabis
What is Cannabis? Cannabis is part of a group of mind-altering product that derive from a busy plant that grows from 1-6 metres tall. There are three species of cannabis plants that produce mind-altering drugs: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica and Cannabis ruberalis. The sativa species has been grown for many centuries and is used to make a variety of useful products including rope, cloth and paper. Most of these goods are produced from hemp, a strong fibre that comes from the stem of the plant. It is the leaves and flowers of this plant, as well as indica and ruberalis species, which are dried to produce intoxicating effects. Climate condition does it need to grow in? Cannabis usually grows in warm places that have great deal of sunshine. Many of the source countries for cannabis, including Colombia, Thailand and Nigeria- are places where it grows naturally and without any real need for cultivation. Also, because hemp was a valuable item in the 19th Century it was vital in the age of sailing ships, cannabis was widely cultivated across southern usa. Growing conditions there are favourable, and the plant has spread widely as a weed.

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The Effect of Solute Concentration on the Rate of Osmosis

The Effect of Solute Concentration on the Rate of Osmosis
Aim: To test and observe how the concentration gradient between a potato and water & sugar solution will affect the rate of osmosis. Introduction: Osmosis is defined as, diffusion, or net movement, of free water molecules from high to low concentration through a semi-permeable membrane. When a substance, such as sugar (which we will be using in the experiment we are about to analyse), dissolves in water, it attracts free water molecules to itself, and in doing so, stops them from moving freely. The effect of this, is that the concentration of (free) water molecules in that environment goes down. There are less free water molecules, and therefore less water molecules to pass across a semi-permeable membrane, through which sugar molecules and other molecules attached to them are too big to diffuse across with ease. In the diagram below on the right, we see two solutions divided by a partially/selectively permeable membrane (i.e. one that is porous, but allows water molecules through faster than dissolved substances).

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The Effect of Different Concentration of Salt Solutions on Potato Tissue

The Effect of Different Concentration of Salt Solutions on Potato Tissue
Aim: .I have to find out the effect of varying salt concentrations on a potato tissue. Also to find out how osmosis occurs with different salt concentrations from very dilute to very concentrated. I will be looking for any changes in mass and length Prediction: I predict that the most concentrated salt solution (1 molar) will be the solution that will have the most dramatic effect upon the tissue of the potato. As the solution goes down the line in other words gets more and more dilute or weaker it will have a less distinctive effect upon the potato tissue. This will happen due to the high concentrated solution i.e. the 1 molar salt solution moving across into a low concentrated are i.e. the potato chip. The potato chips that are in the most concentrated solutions will be the ones, which will lose mass. The potato chips which will be in the diluted solutions will gain more mass this is the actual osmosis scientific theory. Osmosis is the movement of water molecules from an area of high water concentration through a semi-permeable membrane to an area of low water concentration. This is very similar to diffusion and active transport. Osmosis Theory [image] [image][image]Solution A Solution B [image] Partially Permeable Membrane [image]Key = Solute Molecules [image]= Solvent Molecules Preliminary Experiments: Visking Tubing Experiment Visking Tubing This is a thin plastic with microscopic holes, which allow small molecules to pass through Aim === To observe the process of osmosis in an experiment Apparatus

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Investigating the Factors that Affect the Rate of Photosynthesis

Investigating the Factors that Affect the Rate of Photosynthesis
What is photosynthesis?Photosynthesis is the process in green plants and certain otherorganisms by which carbohydrates are synthesised from carbon dioxideand water using light as an energy source. Most forms ofphotosynthesis release oxygen as a by-product. The Chemical equationfor photosynthesis is:6H2O + 6CO2 -???→ C6H12O6+ 6O2Six molecules of water plus six molecules of carbon dioxide produceone molecule of sugar plus six molecules of oxygen.Photosynthesis mainly takes place in a certain layer of a green leafcalled the palisade cells. These are perpendicular to the cuticle (awaxy layer on both the upper and lower surfaces on the leaf to stopwater loss) of the leaf and are packed with chloroplasts.

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Cycles Of Seed Evolution

Cycles Of Seed Evolution
Sunlight plays a much larger role in our sustenance than we may expect: all the food we eat and all the fossil fuel we use is a product of photosynthesis, which is the process that converts energy in sunlight to chemical forms of energy that can be used by biological systems. Photosynthesis is carried out by many different organisms, ranging from plants to bacteria (Figure 1). The best known form of photosynthesis is the one carried out by higher plants and algae, as well as by cyanobacteria and their relatives, which are responsible for a major part of photosynthesis in oceans. All these organisms convert CO2 (carbon dioxide) to organic material by reducing this gas to carbohydrates in a rather complex set of reactions. Electrons for this reduction reaction ultimately come from water, which is then converted to oxygen and protons

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Jurassic park

Jurassic park
In the late twentieth century, the field of biotechnology and genetic engineering has positioned itself to become one of the great technological revolutions of human history. Yet, things changed when Herber Boyer, a biochemist at the University of California, founded the company Genentech in 1976 to exploit the commercial potential of his research. Since then the field has exploded into a global amalgam of private research firms developing frivolous, profit-hungry products, such as square trees tailor-made for lumber, without any sort of government regulation.

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World Studies Definitions

World Studies Definitions
1. Edison, Thomas Alva ? 1847-1931, American inventor, b. Milan, Ohio. A genius in the practical application of scientific principles, Edison was one of the greatest and most productive inventors of his time, but his formal schooling was limited to three months in Port Huron, Mich., in 1854. For several years he was a newsboy on the Grand Trunk RR, and it was during this period that he began to suffer from deafness, which was to increase throughout his life. He later worked as a telegraph operator in various cities. Edison?s first inventions were the transmitter and receiver for the automatic telegraph.

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Texas

Texas
Texas, one of the West South Central states of the United States. It borders Mexico on the southwest and the Gulf of Mexico on the southeast. To the west is New Mexico, to the north and northeast lie Oklahoma and Arkansas, and Louisiana bounds Texas on the east. Austin is the capital of Texas. Houston is the largest city.
Texas is the size of Ohio, Indiana, and all the New England and Middle Atlantic states combined, and its vast area encompasses forests, mountains, deserts and dry plains, and a long, humid, subtropical coastal lowland. Texas?s wealth of mineral resources is almost unequaled among the other states. Its rapid economic development stimulated by these resources and its vast size have made Texas an American legend. Oil wells, chemicals, ranches, and cattle have played a major part in that legend.

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