If April isn’t the cruelest month, it’s got to at least be in the running for those of us who dread our national accounting deadline of April 15th. But today does seem an appropriate day to begin to look at the rules governing numbers in APA Style. The basic rule with numbers is simplicity itself: Use numerals to express numbers 10 and above and words to express numbers below 10.
Our Earth Day post continues our look at exceptions to the basic rule, outlined in 4.31, that numbers below 10 are set as words rather than numerals. We’ve looked at Parts a–c previously. Let’s continue with Parts d–e. These are clear enough that it’s hard to find much of a toehold for ambiguity.
Before looking at the rules, though, there's one change from earlier editions of the Publication Manual that we should note. The rule that specific numbers of subjects or participants in an experiment are set as figures has been dropped.
HHS, a federal government agency, may have access to your health records in connection with an investigation. The agency's Office of Civil Rights (OCR) reviews complaints about privacy violations. You might complain to the OCR, for example, that your HMO refused to give you a copy of your medical records. Then, OCR could request a copy of your records from your HMO as part of its investigation.
We come, at last, to the final post on when to use numerals and when to use words to express numbers. In some cases, you use both.
Rule 4.33 instructs one to use a combination of numerals and words to express back-to-back modifiers. The reason? Such a combination in many cases increases the clarity and readability of the construction.
For those of you familiar with the previous editions of the APA Publication Manual, be aware that the “well-known city” exception for reference citations is no more. Briefly, the old rule was to provide the state, province (if applicable), or country as well as the city for book and other nonperiodical publishers except in the case of certain cities that were described as “major cities that are well known for publishing” (p. 217, 5th edition).
Law School Essay – Guidelines
Law school essays are difficult assignments and can be time consuming and laborious at times. IRAC (issue, rule, application and conclusion) is a way or technique of writing very often followed by the law students to write their paper. First the student will have to read the question throughly and if necessary many times, to make sure that one understands it well. Chalk out he important and relevant issues and jot them down to use them later in the essay. Start the essay with the most pertinent issue so that the reader is made aware at once. Bring out the legal aspect of the issue and explain the rule of law involved in great details. Give examples from past what laws were applicable in similar cases and how the cases were legally fought.
Law School Essay – Guidelines
Law school essays are difficult assignments and can be time consuming and laborious at times. IRAC (issue, rule, application and conclusion) is a way or technique of writing very often followed by the law students to write their paper. First the student will have to read the question throughly and if necessary many times, to make sure that one understands it well. Chalk out he important and relevant issues and jot them down to use them later in the essay.
Writing a law School Essay during your law exam can be a frustrating and nerve wracking experience. To write a standard law essay you could follow the IRAC technique of essay writing. This technique stands for Issue, Rule, Application and Conclusion. It is a rather helpful way to write such types of essays. If you are worried about writing your own essay, you could take a look at a custom essay, or read through some helpful instructions to familiarize yourself with the essay writing process.
When do we format a number below 10 as a numeral? In most cases, it’s when the value itself is the focus of the construction, that is, you are pointing your reader to a specific quantity measurement. Rule 4.31 breaks that down into a number of parts. We looked at Parts a and b in the last post. Here we look at Part c:
c. numbers that immediately precede a unit of measurement