Animal Experimentation

Animal Experimentation
1. introduction
Currently, Animals experimentation is becoming a controversial topic. As millions of creatures have been tested to benefit human life. A simple definition of this procedure is observing scientific laboratory examinations on live animals. There are many campaigns around the world which reject these tests and request the alternatives. They believe that this kind of experimentation is harmful for people as much as it is cruel to animals while others argue these experiments are substantial for humans live as they are used in important medical research. In this project I will present different areas of this hotly debated issue with an important clarification of the history of animals testing and the common use of it. Then, I will offer possible alternatives to these experiments with outlining both negative and positive aspects of them.
2. history OF animal testing
Animal experiments history can be referred to ancient Greeks and Romans writings. The first experiments on living animals were performed by a Greek scientist called Erasistratus in 18th century. During the18th and 19thcenturies these tests transferred from being relatively uncommon to a scientific mainstream. In Russia, the development of embryos was discovered by the Zoologist Christian Pander In 1817, which led to same discovery in human embryos. Additionally, in 1912, dogs were used to study rejoining severed nerves by a French surgeon called Alexis Carrel. This was the first step in organ transplantation.
In 1921, Frederick Banting caused the revolution of diabetes medicines by improving the pancreatic ducts of dogs, and discovered that the isolates of pancreatic secretion can keep dogs with diabetes alive. He followed up these experiments with chemical isolation of insulin in 1922 with John Macleod. After many years, using animals in medical research has had plenty of changes and developments. A good instance of this Dolly the sheep, which was born as a first cloned animal in the world in 1996.

3. law and public pressure
In1800s, people in The United States and in Great Britain started to claim strict regulations for using animals in scientific research. In Europe, social forces have played a vital role in spreading awareness about animal testing between the public. A good example of that was in late 18th century in England when the arguments started about the moral significance of animal testing by Jeremy Bentham, an English Jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. The second important factor for raising public awareness was Charles Darwin?s theory about the origin of species, which contradict the view that the centre of the universe was human.
Furthermore, the First World War influenced this awareness negatively by diverting the attention of social organaisations from it to other duties such as, promoting the education in the war nations. After that, during the period 1950 to 1970, there were many organizations
around the world tried to devote attention to laboratories animals suffer, for example, The Animal Welfare Institute and the Human society( in usa), have succeeded to persuade the congress about legislation a new rules to control these issue.

4. The use of Animals Experiments in the following fields
1- Biomedical research
2- Toxicity testing.
3- Biological science.

4.1. Biomedical Research
?Biomedical research is an immensely complicated activity. It covers such a wide range of interests that no expert can clearly understand the details of more than a small section of it. These research is done with some medical objective in view, and the usual objectives are improvements in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of disease?, Smyth(1978).

General purposes for using animals in biomedical laboratories:
 In fundamental research, which means using animals to learn how living tissues work, so that, understanding living matter is an essential principal for different medical scales such as, Rationale medical, dental and veterinary practice.
 It is a common used method in biomedical and physiological laboratories in all the world.
 Animals in medical laboratories are used for examination in various scales such as, studying particular disease or abnormality and finding appropriate method of treating diseases. This is equally used for both veterinary science and medicine.
 Testing drugs and detect substances of biological products are usually rely on animals experiments.
 Animals used commonly in examine the pharmacological affect in new manufactured drugs.

4.2. Toxicity testing:
Toxicity means ?the quality of being poisonous, particularly in relative to its strength or intensity? Smyth(1978). In all the world millions of animals have been used in this kind of tests such as, rats, mice, chicken, monkeys, Guinea pigs, cat and dogs to help human live safely; safety evaluation is the other name of Toxicity examinations, which means the practice which concerned in showing that substances are not toxic.

The importance of animals in Toxicology
 Using laboratories animals are necessary to ensure human and animal health,
and protecting our environment. For example the evaluation of household products and medicines is a substantial process to preserve our lives.

 This is a quite useful method to study the effects of incidental and occupational exposure to natural and manufactured substances.

 Research with experimental animals is the most trustworthy means of revealing toxic features of chemical substances and for evaluating risks to human especially with the absence of human data.

 To guarantee the short-term and long-term safety of different products before they are brought to the customers. If research on a new substance predicts a considerable threat to human or animal lives.

4.3. Biological Science
In this field animals test function is studying the effect of substances produced by living matters such as, hormones, vaccine, antibiotics and Vitamins; consequently, vaccines have been developed by scientists against fatal diseases for instance, rabies, mumps and measles. Moreover, penicillin was the first and the most important discovery in the last century. This antibiotic can be widely used for treatment of infection by micro-organisms.

(In 1881, Louis Pasteur uses chickens in trial studies of his smallpox disease)
Additionally, animal experimentations can be used in manufacturing food additives and beauty products, which is not allowed in some countries like in the United Kingdom.

5. Animals commonly used
Laboratories animal has to have special properties such as, an appropriate body size to ease dealing with it, cheap to house and easy to breed like mice and rats; another good example is Beagles which are the most commonly used dogs because they are docile, trusting and obedient.

6. The demands for alternatives
Previously, practicing in medicine and biological science need a particular knowledge of how living tissues work. This knowledge is obtained from animal research; recently, there have been several attempts to create possible alternative methods and replace them with animal experimentation. The first attempt was in 1959, by Russel and Burch , who are obviously cared passionately for animals. The major concern about using alternatives was the of inhumanity in animal experimentations, which can cause fear or pain for animals.

7. Possible alternatives
7.1. Replacement
? Tissue culture.
? Models and computers.
? Human stem cells.
? Test tube method (In vitro).
7.2. Reduction.
7.3. Refinement.

7.1. Replacement
7.1.1. Tissue cultures
It is one of the various alternatives to animal testing and the most successful method so far. This means can be described as the technique which maintained the tissue a live outside the body for long periods. The origination of tissue culture was in 1885, when Roux maintained chick embryos outside the egg.
This technique is divided in to two ways
1- Cell culture: which means the whole cultures made of one kind of cells; a good example of that is cloning.
2- Organ culture: in this type he culture has more than one kind of cell. Organ culture defined by Smyth as ?the culture of a few kinds of cells from the same organ which have a functional relationship to each other?.
The problem with replacing tissue culture to animal testing is that after a few cultures the cells will have an abnormality. Therefore, it is very difficult to trust out coming results from this means. Moreover, the cells are not identical especially if the cultures are made by different people from the same sources.

7.1.2. Models in computers
Computer can contribute effectively in biomedical science. That can be summarized as follows:
- Because of computers? memory store scientists can carry out an important experimental calculations on information obtained from laboratory experiments.
- It is the suitable dealer with problems such as drugs fate taken in to the body.
- It may suggest that some laboratory experiments are not worth doing.

7.1.3. Human stem cells
Stem cells have been already used successfully to treat children with leukemia.

7.2.4. Test tube method(in vitro method)
Generally, the simple explanation of this means is testing humans? cells culture in test tube instead of animals? bodies. In addition, there are several advantages from test tube testing in such as, it has better control conditions, more flexible and clearer interpretation than animal experimentations. However, the back draws still exist for example, the possibility of changing chemical features during test.

7.2. Reduction
This method means gaining a scientific information by reducing the number of laboratories animals or obtaining a required data from the same test group of animals.

7.3. refinement
This idea encourage scientists to minimize animals? pain and distress By using none-pain methods during necessary experiments. Then, consider appropriate ways to enhance animal welfare.

8.The potency of alternatives
Despite the fact that these alternatives are beneficial endeavours for scientific research, it still difficult to say all of them are ready to use in the laboratories because their results are not as accurate as animal experiments. Therefore, they are not advanced to replace the experimentation on animals.

9.Ethics on animals experimentation

 The responsible use of laboratory animals in toxicological research and testing is necessary.
 Consider the need of developing and using alternatives to the use of animals.
 The use of research designs that employ less painful or stressful procedures and improve animal care.
 A reduction in the number of animals used for research and testing when this is scientifically appropriate and valid.

Animal Experimentation 9.3 of 10 on the basis of 2494 Review.